Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, as well as evidence of declines elsewhere within its extensive range, it is suspected that the total population of this species is undergoing ongoing declines at the rate of 25-30% over three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Typical medium-sized falcon with a loud acsiiiiiic call. Overall colouration very dark. Underparts mainly orange, with black barring. Iris brown; bill dark with yellow base and cere; legs yellow-orange.
The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon Basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011), although the clearance, fragmentation and degradation of its forest habitat is expected to be a significant threat to the species throughout much of its range. The species, however, exhibits some tolerance of forest fragmentation and degradation, being recorded in modified landscapes with cultivated fields, orchards and pastures (Berry et al. 2010), and it has been found nesting in dead trees in cattle pastures (A. Lees in litt. 2011). This suggests that it is not in rapid decline as a result. A further problem associated with habitat loss appears to be its displacement from nest sites by Black Vulture Coragyps atratus, whose arrival is linked to human occupation and deforestation (del Hoyo et al. 1994). The construction at three hydroelectric dams along the Macal River, Belize, initiated in 1993 and still on-going today, has been implicated in the loss of two territories in the 1990s, and has exposed two still active territories to an influx of construction workers, increased public access, the risk of electrocution and collision with powerlines, and increased numbers of Black Vultures (Berry et al. 2010). The species may suffer a low level of direct persecution by humans, and average nesting success appears to be depressed by frequent predation, at least in some areas. The species may also be negatively impacted by the presence of Africanised Bees. In addition, the species is affected by high tourist traffic in the vicinity of some breeding sites (Berry et al. 2010).
Conservation Actions Underway
This species occurs in a number of protected areas throughout its extensive range. Fundacin ProAves Colombia has designated a reserve in the East Andes specifically for the protection of this species (T. Donegan in litt. 2012). The experimental introduction of captive-bred birds of Panamanian origin is being carried out in the Mountain Pine Ridge of Belize, which should reveal whether inbreeding depression has been the cause of lowered breeding productivity (Berry et al. 2010).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out a periodic meta-analysis of all known records and conduct further surveys to study the species's range, population size and trends. Monitor habitat trends across its range. Encourage the protection of nests by land-owners. Investigate methods for reducing the impacts of Black Vultures and other predators and nest competitors (Berry et al. 2010). Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.
Berry, R. B.; Benkman, C. W.; Muela, A.; Seminario, Y.; Curti, M. 2010. Isolation and decline of a population of the Orange-breasted Falcon. Condor 112(3): 479-489.
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.
Carrión, J. M.; Vargas, F. H. 2008. First record of the Orange-breasted Falcon (Falco deiroleucus) in Quito. Neotropical Raptor Network Newsletter 5: 2.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.
Jara, L. D. 2008. First record of the Orange-breasted Falcon in Chile. Neotropical Raptor Network Newsletter 5: 5.
Restall, R.; Rodner, C.; Lentino, M. 2006. Birds of northern South America: an identification guide. Volume 1: species accounts. Christopher Helm, London.
Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J.
Berry, R., Donegan, T., Lees, A., Panjabi, A.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Falco deiroleucus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Family||Falconidae (Falcons and caracaras)|
|Species name author||Temminck, 1825|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||3,250,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|