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Saker Falcon Falco cherrug

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2bcde+3cde+4bcde 
Vulnerable A2bcde+3cde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,300,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,580,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 12800-30800 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.12,800-30,800 mature individuals, based on national population estimates of breeding pairs (Karyakin 2008, Dixon 2009, A. Dixon in litt. 2012, A. Levin in litt. 2012, BirdLife International unpubl. data) that total c.6,400-15,400 pairs (median c.10,900).
Trend justification: Assuming a generation length of 6.4 years and that the species's decline had already begun (at least in some areas) prior to the 1990s (consumption in the Middle East was heavy by the mid-1980s), the overall population trend during the 19-year period 1993-2012 equates to a 47% decline (based on median estimates), with a minimum-maximum decline of 2-75%. Given the substantial degree of uncertainty over the estimates used, the population trend is best placed precautionarily in the band for a 50-79% decline over three generations.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Vagrant Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Burundi Vagrant Extant        
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Chad Unknown Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant     Yes  
Eritrea Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Ethiopia Native Extant   Yes    
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Vagrant Extant        
Georgia Native Extant   Yes    
Germany Native Possibly Extinct Yes      
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Hungary Native Extant     Yes Yes
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes Yes
Israel Native Extant   Yes    
Italy Native Extant   Yes    
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant   Yes    
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant     Yes  
Mali Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Malta Native Extant     Yes  
Mauritania Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Nepal Native Extant   Yes    
Niger Unknown Extant        
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Unknown Extant        
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Vagrant Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Vagrant Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant     Yes  
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extinct Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Imam Sahib site factsheet
Austria Central Marchfeld site factsheet
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte site factsheet
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest site factsheet
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden site factsheet
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills site factsheet
Bulgaria Central Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets site factsheet
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa site factsheet
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Strandzha site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksayqin Hu and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe site factsheet
China (mainland) Aqqik Kol and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Area between Qinghai Hu and A'nyêmaqên site factsheet
China (mainland) Ayark Kol and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Barkol Lake and grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Baytik Shan site factsheet
China (mainland) Bulungkol grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Changshagongma Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Haizishan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ili River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Jingyu Hu site factsheet
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Mori Grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulugqat grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Xiaohegou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xining site factsheet
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko site factsheet
Georgia Iori Region site factsheet
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség site factsheet
Hungary Del-Hevesi-sik site factsheet
Hungary Gemenc site factsheet
Hungary Gerecse site factsheet
Hungary Heves Plain site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
Hungary Vértes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area site factsheet
Jordan Burqu' site factsheet
Kazakhstan Aktau cliff faces site factsheet
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park site factsheet
Kazakhstan Amankaragay Forest site factsheet
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ayak-Bestau Hills site factsheet
Kazakhstan Basgurly-Zhazgurly Depression site factsheet
Kazakhstan Cherdoyak site factsheet
Kazakhstan Chingiztau Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces site factsheet
Kazakhstan Eastern Kazakhstan uplands site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest) site factsheet
Kazakhstan Iskrinskie Pine Forests site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon site factsheet
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kaundy Depression site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea site factsheet
Kazakhstan Manyrak Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Mugodzhary site factsheet
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan North-western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ortau upland massif site factsheet
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau site factsheet
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest) site factsheet
Kazakhstan Toraygyr Ridge site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ulytau Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range site factsheet
Kazakhstan Western cliff faces of the Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhagalbayly and Tuyemoynak Hills site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Eastern Alai site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Son-Kul Lake site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Western Issyk Kul Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Borzon Gobi site factsheet
Mongolia Bulgan Tal site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Dayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Eej Khad site factsheet
Mongolia Erdenesant Mountains site factsheet
Mongolia Erkhel Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Galba Gobi site factsheet
Mongolia Gorkhi-Terelj National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Govi Gurvan Saikhan Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Ikh Gazriin Chuluu site factsheet
Mongolia Jargalant Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area site factsheet
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Khokh Serkhiin Nuruu site factsheet
Mongolia Khustain Nuruu National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Maikhant Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Nomrog site factsheet
Mongolia Oigon Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Orog Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Sharga Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Taigam Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tarialan site factsheet
Mongolia Telmen Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tolbo Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Tsengel Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve site factsheet
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Babadag wood site factsheet
Romania Beştepe - Mahmudia site factsheet
Romania Câmpia Nirului - Valea lerului site factsheet
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Denis Tepe site factsheet
Romania Dobrogei gorge site factsheet
Romania Fizes valley site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Horga - Zorleni site factsheet
Romania Kogălniceanu - Gura Ialomiţei site factsheet
Romania Lake Taşaul site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aginskiy lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiy lakes system site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Middle Onon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Sayanski canyon of the Enisey river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Blagoveschenskaya (Kulunda lake and vicinity) site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kanskaya Steppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetski Alatau site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskie of a bog 2 site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube site factsheet
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Kalachskaya Loop of Don River site factsheet
Russia (European) Malka river ravine site factsheet
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river site factsheet
Russia (European) Shugurovskoye plateau site factsheet
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah site factsheet
Serbia Fruska Gora site factsheet
Serbia Obedska bara site factsheet
Slovakia Kosice valley site factsheet
Slovakia Malé Karpaty site factsheet
Slovakia Morava site factsheet
Slovakia Spacince - Nizna site factsheet
Slovakia Vychodoslovenska plain site factsheet
Syria Buhayrat al-Khatuniyah site factsheet
Tajikistan Aktash massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Bulunkul and Yashilkul lakes and mountains site factsheet
Tajikistan Dangara massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Dashtidjum site factsheet
Tajikistan Drumkul Lake site factsheet
Tajikistan Dzhavshangoz site factsheet
Tajikistan Ishkashim site factsheet
Tajikistan Iskanderkul lake and mountains site factsheet
Tajikistan Karakul lake and mountains site factsheet
Tajikistan Kattasay and Daganasay Reservoirs site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Tajikistan Kondara Gorge site factsheet
Tajikistan Kulikalon Lakes site factsheet
Tajikistan Mogoltau massif site factsheet
Tajikistan Rangkul valley (Rangkul & Shorkul Lakes) site factsheet
Tajikistan Sarazm site factsheet
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve site factsheet
Tajikistan Zorkul Nature Reserve (Lake Victoria) site factsheet
Turkey Nemrut Mountain site factsheet
Turkmenistan Akjagaya site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly site factsheet
Turkmenistan Delili - Garajabatyr site factsheet
Turkmenistan Depmechay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Dushakerekdag site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr site factsheet
Turkmenistan Garabil site factsheet
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy site factsheet
Turkmenistan Garachop site factsheet
Turkmenistan Garashor site factsheet
Turkmenistan Gorelde site factsheet
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan site factsheet
Turkmenistan Gurykhovudan site factsheet
Turkmenistan Karabogaz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Koymat - Begarslan site factsheet
Turkmenistan Koytendag site factsheet
Turkmenistan Kurendag - Garagoz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Kurtusuv - Khovudan site factsheet
Turkmenistan Soltansanjar - Duyeboyun site factsheet
Turkmenistan Sumbar site factsheet
Turkmenistan Tejen site factsheet
Turkmenistan Tekejik - Biynekyr site factsheet
Turkmenistan Uzboy site factsheet
Ukraine Bagerove site factsheet
Ukraine Bilogir'ya site factsheet
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake site factsheet
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest site factsheet
Uzbekistan Amudarya floodlands near Termez site factsheet
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range site factsheet
Uzbekistan Buzaubay site factsheet
Uzbekistan Central section of the Kurama Mountain Range site factsheet
Uzbekistan Darasay Gorge site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre site factsheet
Uzbekistan Gissar State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Middle reaches of the Sherabad River site factsheet
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern part of the Assake-Audan depression site factsheet
Uzbekistan Nuratau Range site factsheet
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Yemen Ta'izz wadis site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Hybridisation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Falco cherrug. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)
Species name author Gray, 1834
Population size 12800-30800 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10,300,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species