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Laggar Falcon Falco jugger
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Trends in this species's population are poorly documented; however, it probably has a moderately small population that is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction, both owing to pesticide use and incidental capture by trappers targeting Saker Falcon Falco cherrug.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Falco jugger occurs in the Indian Subcontinent from extreme south-east Iran, south-east Afghanistan, and Pakistan, through India (from the Himalayan foothills south to northern Kerala and northern Tamil Nadu), Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and north-west Myanmar. The species's range has been estimated to cover 4.2 million km2 (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001). In the 1960s the species was "the commonest of all [the region's] falcons" (Ali and Ripley 1978), but is now declining rapidly (Ali and Ripley 1987). In the 1970s, a total population of 10,000-25,000 pairs was suggested (Cade 1982). Now, the total population may still number more than 10,000 birds, although is perhaps not much more (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).

Population justification
In the 1970s the global population was estimated at 10,000-25,000 pairs by Cade (1982). The total population may still number more than 10,000 birds, although there are perhaps not many more), thus it is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat degradation, pesticide use and capture.

It is mostly found from sea-level to 1,000 m in dry open woodland and open country with scattered trees (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).

Declines have been noted in Pakistan and north-west India, perhaps from spreading cultivation and pesticides, and the species is scarce in Nepal and Bangladesh. In Pakistan at least, the species is threatened by trapping for Saker Falcons Falco cherrug - Laggar Falcons themselves are apparently not prized for falconry (Ali and Ripley 1987). The main threat, given the presumed susceptibility of the species to pesticides, is the intensification of pesticide use in the region, e.g. there was a seven-fold increase in pesticide use in Pakistan between 1981 and 1992 (Movalli 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
It breeds in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess the size of the population. Regularly monitor the population at selected sites across its range. Restrict the use of pesticides and make local people aware of their impacts on the local wildlife. Enforce the legal protection afforded to the Saker Falcons, to the benefit of this species as well. Determine the level of capture of this species and its affects on population levels. Conduct local education programmes to discourage falcon catching.

Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. 1978. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Ali, S. and Ripley, S.D. 1987. Oxford University Press, Bombay, India.

Cade, T.J. 1982. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, USA.

Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S. & Taylor, J.

Harris, C., Naoroji, R., Prasad, A., Sharma, S., Susanth, C. & Thompson, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Falco jugger. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)
Species name author Gray, 1834
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,530,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species