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Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 140,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 591,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 11800-12400 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 5,900-6,200 breeding pairs, equating to 11,800-12,600 mature individuals or 17,700-18,600 individuals in total (BirdLife International 2004).
Trend justification: The population is declining owing to over exploitation of chicks and eggs and loss of habitat caused by an increase in tourism development (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
Comoros Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
France Native Extant Yes   Yes
French Southern Territories Vagrant Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Hungary Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Libya Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant     Yes
Mauritania Vagrant Extant      
Mauritius Vagrant Extant      
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant Yes    
Mozambique Vagrant Extant      
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Native Extant      
Réunion (to France) Vagrant Extant      
Rwanda Vagrant Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Vagrant Extant      
Spain Native Extant Yes    
Sudan Native Extant     Yes
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Tanzania Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant Yes    
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Yemen Vagrant Extant     Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Algeria Îles Habibas site factsheet
Croatia Pucinski otoci site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Cape Aspro site factsheet
Greece Agioi Theodori islet site factsheet
Greece Amorgos island site factsheet
Greece Antikithira island, Prasouda and Lagouvardos islets site factsheet
Greece Christiana islets site factsheet
Greece Dia island site factsheet
Greece Ikaria island site factsheet
Greece Islets of Karpathian Sea site factsheet
Greece Kavalli islets site factsheet
Greece Koufonisi island site factsheet
Greece Mikres Kyklades site factsheet
Greece Mount Kohilas, Skyros island site factsheet
Greece Nisiros island and nearby islets site factsheet
Greece North and south Patmos island and islets site factsheet
Greece North-east Tinos island site factsheet
Greece North-eastern edge of Crete site factsheet
Greece Northern Sifnos site factsheet
Greece Northern Syros site factsheet
Greece Sirna island and nearby islets site factsheet
Greece South-west peninsula-petrified forest, Lesvos site factsheet
Greece Venetiko islet site factsheet
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyegos islands site factsheet
Morocco Archipel d'Essaouira site factsheet
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba site factsheet
Morocco Falaise Sidi-Moussa site factsheet
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou site factsheet
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders site factsheet
Spain Columbretes islands site factsheet
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa site factsheet
Spain Famara crag site factsheet
Spain Haría-Tabayesco site factsheet
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell site factsheet
Spain Lanzarote islets site factsheet
Spain Tagomago island site factsheet
Spain Tramuntana mountains site factsheet
Tunisia El Feidja site factsheet
Tunisia Galite archipelago site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Turkey Bodrum peninsula site factsheet
Turkey Doğanbey Coast site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Islands site factsheet
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3000 m


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Falco eleonorae. Downloaded from on 14/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Falconidae (Falcons and caracaras)
Species name author Géné, 1839
Population size 11800-12400 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 140,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species