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Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2015 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 140,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 29200-29600 poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.4 - - -
Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the population is estimated at 14,300-14,500 pairs, which equates to 28,700-29,100 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The North African population is estimated at approximately 250 pairs or 500 mature individuals (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Therefore the overall population is estimated at 29,200-29,600 mature individuals.
Trend justification: In Europe, which holds a large proportion of the global population, the population size is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Algeria Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes  
Comoros Native Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
French Southern Territories Vagrant Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes  
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Hungary Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kenya Native Extant        
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Libya Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant     Yes  
Mauritania Vagrant Extant        
Mauritius Vagrant Extant        
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant Yes      
Mozambique Vagrant Extant        
Poland Vagrant Extant        
Portugal Native Extant        
Réunion (to France) Vagrant Extant        
Rwanda Vagrant Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Vagrant Extant        
Spain Native Extant Yes      
Sudan Native Extant     Yes  
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Tanzania Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant Yes      
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant     Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Yemen Vagrant Extant     Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Algeria Îles Habibas site factsheet
Croatia Kornati National Park and Telascica Nature Park site factsheet
Croatia Pucinski otoci site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
Cyprus Cape Aspro site factsheet
Greece Agioi Theodori islet site factsheet
Greece Agios Efstratios island site factsheet
Greece Amorgos island site factsheet
Greece Anafi island site factsheet
Greece Antikithira island, Prasouda and Lagouvardos islets site factsheet
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Christiana islets site factsheet
Greece Dia island site factsheet
Greece Diapontia islands (Othonoi, Ereikousa, Mathraki) and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete site factsheet
Greece Falkonera, Velopoula and Karavia islets site factsheet
Greece Fournoi island site factsheet
Greece Gramvousa peninsula and Gramvouses and Pontikonisi islets, Crete site factsheet
Greece Ikaria island site factsheet
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese site factsheet
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos site factsheet
Greece Islets of Karpathian Sea site factsheet
Greece Islets of western Limnos and cape Mourtzeflos site factsheet
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Kavalli islets site factsheet
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Koufonisi island site factsheet
Greece Kythira island site factsheet
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex site factsheet
Greece Mount Kohilas, Skyros island site factsheet
Greece Nisiros island and nearby islets site factsheet
Greece North and south Patmos island and islets site factsheet
Greece North-east Tinos island site factsheet
Greece North-eastern edge of Crete site factsheet
Greece Northern Sifnos site factsheet
Greece Northern Syros site factsheet
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Serifos island site factsheet
Greece South-west peninsula-petrified forest, Lesvos site factsheet
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets site factsheet
Greece Venetiko islet site factsheet
Greece Western Milos, Antimilos and Polyegos islands site factsheet
Greece Zakynthos island site factsheet
Italy Coast between Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino site factsheet
Italy Eolie islands site factsheet
Italy Orosei Gulf, Supramonte and Gennargentu site factsheet
Italy Pantelleria site factsheet
Italy San Pietro and Sant'Antioco islands site factsheet
Morocco Archipel d'Essaouira site factsheet
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba site factsheet
Morocco Falaise Sidi-Moussa site factsheet
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou site factsheet
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Cala Salada - Illa d'en Calders site factsheet
Spain Columbretes islands site factsheet
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa site factsheet
Spain Famara crag site factsheet
Spain Haría-Tabayesco site factsheet
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell site factsheet
Spain Lanzarote islets site factsheet
Spain Tagomago island site factsheet
Spain Tramuntana mountains site factsheet
Tunisia El Feidja site factsheet
Tunisia Galite archipelago site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Turkey Bodrum peninsula site factsheet
Turkey Doğanbey Coast site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Islands site factsheet
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3000 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases / Unspecified Rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Falco eleonorae. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)
Species name author G&eacute;n&eacute;, 1839
Population size 29200-29600 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 140,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment