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Maccoa Duck Oxyura maccoa

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) C1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2007 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,190,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-7900 good Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to be 9,000-11,750 individuals, roughly equivalent to 6,000-7,900 mature individuals.
Trend justification: The northern population of this species has suffered severe declines, perhaps by 50% in the last 10 years (Berruti et al. 2007). The larger southern population appears stable after a period of range expansion and possible population increase (Berruti et al. 2005) but is considered smaller than previously thought and declines may have begun (Berruti et al. 2007). This information suggests that the overall population is in decline at a slow to moderate rate.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Angola Native Extant       Yes
Botswana Native Extant       Yes
Burundi Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant       Yes
Eritrea Native Extant       Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant       Yes
Kenya Native Extant       Yes
Lesotho Native Extant       Yes
Malawi Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Namibia Native Extant       Yes
Rwanda Native Extant       Yes
South Africa Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Unknown Extant        
Swaziland Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant       Yes
Uganda Native Extant       Yes
Zimbabwe Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Botswana Bokaa Dam site factsheet
Botswana Phakalane sewage lagoons, near Gaborone site factsheet
Kenya Lake Ol' Bolossat site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
Tanzania Arusha National Park and vicinity site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / African Payal (Salvinia molesta) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Oxyura maccoa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Eyton, 1838)
Population size 6000-7900 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,190,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change