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White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2bcde+4bcde 
Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde;C1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 215,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 215,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5300-8700 good Estimated 2002
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-11659 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to number 2,500 individuals in Spain and Morocco (J. A. Torres Esquivias and A. Green in litt. 2002); 400-600 individuals in Algeria and Tunisia (H. Azafzaf and P. Isenmann in litt. 2002); 5,000-10,000 individuals in the east Mediterranean and south-west Asia, and 10 individuals in south Asia. This totals 7,900-13,100 individuals, roughly equating to 5,300-8,700 mature individuals.
Trend justification: Despite uncertainty about the possible 'redistribution' of birds in the Middle East, Azerbaijan, etc., the latest total winter figures from Turkey (for 2002 and 2005) suggest that the 'fluctuation' recorded during 1990-2000 has now become a real decline. Thus a very rapid decline is estimated for the last ten years, which is expected to slow to a rapid decline over the next ten years.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant      
Albania Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant Yes    
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Croatia Unknown Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Vagrant Extant   Yes  
France Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Georgia Native Extant      
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes  
Hungary Native Extinct Yes    
India Native Extant   Yes  
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Native Extant   Yes  
Italy Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Libya Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Unknown Extant   Yes  
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Unknown Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Pakistan Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Unknown Extant   Yes Yes
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Serbia Unknown Extant      
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Slovenia Vagrant Extant      
Spain Native Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant     Yes
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant     Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant   Yes  
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes   Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Afghanistan Kole Hashmat Khan site factsheet
Albania Narta Lagoon site factsheet
Algeria Complexe de zones humides de la plaine de Guerbes-Sanhadja site factsheet
Algeria Lac des Oiseaux / Garaet et Touyour site factsheet
Algeria Lac Oubeïra site factsheet
Algeria Lac Tonga site factsheet
Algeria Marais de Mekhada site factsheet
Armenia Armash fish-farm site factsheet
Azerbaijan Divichi liman (or Lake Akzibir) site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Hajigabul site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Azerbaijan Red Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
China (mainland) Sayram Nur site factsheet
China (mainland) Tacheng (Qoqek) area site factsheet
China (mainland) Xekar Reservoir site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
Cyprus Mia Milia Sewage Treatment Plant site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gori Gol site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Harm lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shur Gol, Yadegarlu and Dorgeh Sangi lakes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Israel Judean foothills site factsheet
Israel Zevulun valley site factsheet
Kazakhstan Isei Lake site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System site factsheet
Mongolia Airag Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ulaagchinii Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Lake Taşaul site factsheet
Romania Lake Techirghiol site factsheet
Romania Limanu - Herghelia site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ulukhkol' lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Baganskiye Lakes site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Bykovo lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kocherdyksky goose zakaznik site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurlady Lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Kurumbel'skaya steppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Lake system near Lotoshnoye village site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Makushinsky Zakaznik site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Saltosarayskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) System of lakes Kurlady-Selezjan-Atkul site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Tulak lake site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Wetlands of Karasuk town site factsheet
Russia (European) Adzhi Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Lake Manych-Gudilo site factsheet
Russia (European) Sarpinskaya lake-system site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes site factsheet
Spain Alcázar de San Juan-Quero endorreic lagoons site factsheet
Spain Cádiz bay site factsheet
Spain Conde, Chinche and Honda lakes site factsheet
Spain El Hondo wetland site factsheet
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes site factsheet
Spain Lagunas de El Puerto de Santa María site factsheet
Spain Lebrija, Las Cabezas and Espera lagoons site factsheet
Spain Los Tollos lake site factsheet
Spain Medina and Puerto Real lagoons site factsheet
Spain Pedro Muñoz-Manjavacas endorreic lagoons site factsheet
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes site factsheet
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains site factsheet
Spain Wetlands at south Córdoba site factsheet
Spain Wetlands of western Almería site factsheet
Syria Bahrat Homs site factsheet
Syria Tual al-'Abba site factsheet
Tunisia El Houareb reservoir site factsheet
Tunisia Ichkeul site factsheet
Tunisia Lebna reservoir site factsheet
Tunisia Masri reservoir site factsheet
Tunisia Mlaâbi reservoir site factsheet
Tunisia Mornaguia reservoir site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia site factsheet
Tunisia Sebkhet Sidi Mansour site factsheet
Tunisia Sidi Abdelmonem reservoir site factsheet
Turkey Bendimahi Delta site factsheet
Turkey Burdur Lake site factsheet
Turkey Ceyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Çimenova Lakes site factsheet
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü site factsheet
Turkey Çorak Lake site factsheet
Turkey Dönemeç Delta site factsheet
Turkey Edremit Reedbeds site factsheet
Turkey Erçek Lake site factsheet
Turkey Ereğli Plain site factsheet
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Hafik Zara Hills site factsheet
Turkey Hirfanlı Reservoir site factsheet
Turkey Hotamış Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Karakuyu Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Karamık Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Karataş Lake site factsheet
Turkey Kars Plain site factsheet
Turkey Kavuştuk Peninsula site factsheet
Turkey Kızılırmak Delta site factsheet
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl site factsheet
Turkey Kulu Lake site factsheet
Turkey Kuyucuk Lake site factsheet
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake) site factsheet
Turkey Mogan lake site factsheet
Turkey Salda Lake site factsheet
Turkey Seyhan Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sinop Peninsula site factsheet
Turkey Sodalıgöl (Arın Lake) site factsheet
Turkey South Shore of Lake Van site factsheet
Turkey Sultan Marsh site factsheet
Turkey Ulaş Lakes site factsheet
Turkey Uyuz Lake site factsheet
Turkey Van Plains site factsheet
Turkey Yarışlı Lake site factsheet
Turkey Yedikır Reservoir site factsheet
Turkey Ziyaret Mountain and Ahlat Marshes site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ayrakly – Garadzhaovlak site factsheet
Turkmenistan Delili - Garajabatyr site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ekerem - Esenguly site factsheet
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui site factsheet
Turkmenistan Ketteshor - Ramankol site factsheet
Turkmenistan South Cheleken Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Turkmenbashy Bay site factsheet
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif site factsheet
Uzbekistan Akpetky lakes and surrounding Aralkum Desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tudakul and Kuymazar Reservoirs site factsheet
Uzbekistan Zekry Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Zholdyrbas Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes unset non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools major breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Gathering terrestrial plants / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Hybridisation, Competition
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Oxyura leucocephala. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Anatidae (Ducks, geese and swans)
Species name author (Scopoli, 1769)
Population size 5300-8700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 215,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species