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Plumbeous Forest-falcon Micrastur plumbeus

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable because its population is suspected to be small and rapidly declining owing to habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
30-36 cm. Secretive and shy forest-falcon with single white tail-band. Adult has slaty grey upperparts and white underparts, finely barred blackish on breast. Blackish tail with broad, white central tail-band and narrow tail tip. Bright orange-red cere and legs. Pale brown iris. Immature similar with paler barring on underparts and dark brown iris. Similar spp. Barred Forest-falcon M. ruficollis has 2-3 tail-bands, yellowish cere and legs, and is proportionally longer tailed and shorter winged. Voice Song a single, lamenting bark repeated frequently, usually at dawn. Cackling alarm call (Jahn et al. 2002, Krabbe and Nilsson 2003).

Distribution and population
Micrastur plumbeus is restricted to the Pacific slope and lowlands in south-west Colombia (Chocó, Valle de Cauca, Cauca and Nariño) and north-west Ecuador (Esmeraldas and Pichincha). It was not recorded in Colombia in 1959-1992 but, since then, two sites in Valle de Cauca and four sites in Nariño have been discovered (Wege and Long 1995, N. Gomez in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000, R. Strewe in litt. 1999), including four pairs studied in the c.20 km2 Río Ñambi Community Nature Reserve (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). In Ecuador, from 1959-1998 there were only single records from three sites (K. S. Berg in litt. 1999N. Krabbe in litt. 1999), but the number of known locations has been increasing considerably in recent years, and now includes at least seven sites in Esmeraldas (K. S. Berg in litt. 1999, O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007, Jahn in press a) and two sites in Pichincha (N. Krabbe in litt. 1999, Jahn et al. 2002, Krabbe and Nilsson 2003). It is described as rare (Hilty and Brown 1986), but is likely overlooked.

Population justification
In its ideal habitat, continuous primary wet premontane forest, the species has an estimated population density of about 4 adults / km2, calculated on the basis of extensive visual and auditory transect-mapping samples in Esmeraldas. However, it is much rarer in the lowlands and disturbed habitat. Based on this density data, and the species's Extent of Occurrence, the population is estimated to number 4,960-49,600 individuals. It is precautionarily placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals, equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals (Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007).

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of accelerating habitat loss over the period of three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits humid and wet, lowland, foothill and premontane forest to 1,500 m, and is dependent on undisturbed closed-canopy habitat (K. S. Berg in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). It preys largely on small, ground-dwelling animals, notably Anolis lizards (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). It has a relatively small home range during the breeding season (March-August) (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). Nests are placed in tree-cavities (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000).

Threats
The Chocó region has long been a source of timber, but logging has intensified since the mid-1970s (WWF and IUCN 1994-1997). By 1996, in western Ecuador the remnant cover of evergreen lowland and premontane forests was only 18% and 40% respectively (Sierra 1999). In Esmeraldas, annual deforestation rates in the lowlands (<300m) were 3.8% and accumulated loss of primary forest >38% during the last decade (Cárdenas 2007). During the same period, the cover of primary premontane forest (300-1300m) was reduced by 7% (Cárdenas 2007). During the same period, the cover of primary premontane forest (300-1300m) was reduced by 7% (Cárdenas 2007). Infrastructural improvement, particularly the rapid expansion of the road network, in the region has led to logging, hunting, small-scale agriculture, illegal coca plantations and gold mining in formerly pristine areas (Salaman 1994, Wege and Long 1995, WWF and IUCN 1994-1997, Salaman and Stiles 1996), and already affects some key protected areas (Jahn in press a, O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007). There is intensive agricultural development, especially oil-palm and banana plantations, and cattle-farming (WWF and IUCN 1994-1997, P. Coopmans in litt. 1998, Bowen-Jones et al. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). New legislation and the transfer of land rights to local communities has been exploited by large businesses, for whom it has become cheap and easy to buy land (Bowen-Jones et al. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). International investment in the region has been lacking in concern for the environment (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). The combination of these factors has resulted in a high and increasing rate of deforestation, particularly in Ecuador, Nariño and along new roads (Salaman 1994, Salaman and Stiles 1996, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in Los Farallones de Cali National Park, which could hold a significant population, Río Ñambi and El Pangan Nature Reserves (Colombia) (R. Strewe in litt. 1999), (Wege and Long 1995); and Cotacachi-Cayapas and Mache-Chindul ecological reserves, Jatun Sacha Bilsa Reserve, Awacachi Corridor, Gran Reserva Chachi, Milpe Reserve and probably also in the Canandé Reserve (Ecuador) (K. S. Berg in litt. 1999), (Jahn et al. 2002, Krabbe and Nilsson 2003, O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey less well-known areas, notably Los Farallones de Cali National Park (Wege and Long 1995). Design and implement an action plan for the species and its habitat (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, 2000). Designate the Awá Reserve, Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve, Awacachi Corridor, Gran Reserva Chachi, and Canandé Reserve, including the Río Santiago, Cayapas, Ónzole, and Hoja Blanca drainages, as a biosphere reserve (O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007, Jahn in press a). Sustainably manage the buffer zone to the Awá Ethnic Reserve and Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve (O. Jahn in litt. 2007, P. Mena Valenzuela in litt. 2007). Implement population monitoring programs (O. Jahn in litt. 2007). Consolidate protection of the Mache-Chindul and Cotacachi-Cayapas ecological reserves through law enforcement against illegal logging, hunting and colonisation inside the reserves and sustainable management projects in their buffer zones (O. Jahn in litt. 2007).

References
Cárdenas, A. 2007. Análisis multitemporal de cobertura vegetal y uso del suelo para la Ventana Binacional Ecuador, período 1998 - 2007, Proyecto "Diseño del SIMSA - CCCM".

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Jahn, O. in press. Bird communities of the Ecuadorian Chocó: a case study for conservation. Bonner Zoologische Monographien 56.

Jahn, O.; Moore, J. V.; Valenzuela, P. M.; Krabbe, N.; Coopmans, P.; Lysinger, M.; Ridgely, R. S. 2002. The Birds of Northwest Ecuador Volume II: the lowlands and lower foothills. John V. Moore Nature Recordings, San Jose, USA.

Krabbe, N.; Nilsson, J. 2003. Birds of Ecuador: sounds and photographs. Bird Songs International, Westernieland, Netherlands.

Salaman, P. G. W. 1994. Surveys and conservation of biodiversity in the Chocó, south-west Colombia. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Salaman, P. G. W.; Stiles, F. G. 1996. A distinctive new species of vireo (Passeriformes: Vireonidae) from the Western Andes of Colombia. Ibis 138: 610-619.

Sierre, R. 1999. Vegetación remanente del Ecuador Continental.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

WWF/IUCN. 1994-1997. Centres of plant diversity. A guide and strategy for their conservation. IUCN, Cambridge, UK.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Jahn, O., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Berg, K., Coopmans, P., Gomez, N., Jahn, O., Krabbe, N., Mena-Valenzuela, P., Salaman, P., Strewe, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Micrastur plumbeus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Falconidae (Falcons, Caracaras)
Species name author Sclater, 1918
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 62,200 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species