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Secretarybird Sagittarius serpentarius

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A4acd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2011 Vulnerable
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 4017 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6700-67000 poor Suspected 2001
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.7 - - -
Population justification: Although the species occurs across a vast range, surveyed densities suggest that the total population size does not exceed a five-figure number.
Trend justification: Ad-hoc records, localised surveys and anecdotal observations indicate apparent declines in many parts of the species's range (Baker et al. 2011). On the basis of this evidence the species is suspected to be undergoing a rapid decline overall.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola Native Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Djibouti Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extinct      
Ghana Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Unknown Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Lesotho Native Extant      
Liberia Vagrant Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Rwanda Vagrant Extant      
Senegal Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Togo Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Kenya Kwenia site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluct Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sagittarius serpentarius. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Miller, 1779)
Population size 6700-67000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 14,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions