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LC
Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number in the tens of thousands.

Trend justification
This species is declining locally owing to forest destruction, human disturbance and persecution and reduction in prey species (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Ecology
Behaviour The species is mainly migratory, although populations in the northern Indian Subcontinent and in the Balearic Islands are resident. Migratory birds winter in southern Africa and southern Asia; northern birds leave their breeding grounds in September and return in March and April, and those breeding in South Africa move northwards in March and return in August (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Migrants are thought to partially cross water on a broad front (assumed from regular occurrence on islands across the Mediterranean), but nevertheless many pass through bottleneck short crossing points each season. Birds tend to be seen singly or in pairs, and even on migration rarely form groups of more than five, and stay away from other raptors (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Birds soar c.200-300 m above the ground when hunting (Brown et al. 1982). Habitat It is a species of open woodland, preferring patches of forest interspersed with open areas; it is recorded up to 3,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Small birds are the most important part of its diet (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site Nests are built in trees (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information A mixture of woodland and open areas such as agricultural fields is optimal for this species (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Threats
Threats affecting the species include habitat degradation, direct persecution and human disturbance, each causing some decline in parts of Europe (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Declines in the Ukraine are being driven by deforestation (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It is also highly vulnerable to the impacts of potential wind energy developments (Strix 2012).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

Brown, L. H.; Urban, E. K.; Newman, K. 1982. The birds of Africa vol I. Academic Press, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Strix. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hieraaetus pennatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1788)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change