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Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered D1 
Vulnerable  

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 117,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 648 good Estimated 2011
Population trend Increasing good -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 648 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -
Population justification: The species's global population was estimated at 324 breeding pairs in 2011, equating to 648 mature individuals (S. Cabezas-Díaz, J. C. Atienza et al. in litt. 2013), and assumed to be indicative of a total population of c.1,000 individuals.
Trend justification: Over the period 1990-2011, the population in Spain showed an average annual increase of c.7%, with the population in Andalucía increasing by an average of c.8% annually over the same period (J. R. Garrido in litt. 2013). The species recolonised Portugal in 2003, and has been slowly increasing since, with six breeding pairs recorded in 2011 and nine in 2012 (S. Cabezas-Díaz, J. C. Atienza et al. in litt. 2013).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Algeria Vagrant Extinct   Yes    
France Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Morocco Native Extinct       Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Spain Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador site factsheet
Spain Canalizos mountain range (Saceruela) site factsheet
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Confidential site factsheet
Spain Coria mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias site factsheet
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas site factsheet
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Lebrija, Las Cabezas and Espera lagoons site factsheet
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Medina and Puerto Real lagoons site factsheet
Spain Medina-Sidonia site factsheet
Spain Monfragüe site factsheet
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range site factsheet
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros site factsheet
Spain Rosarito and Navalcán reservoirs-La Iglesuela (Tietar valley) site factsheet
Spain San Pedro mountain range site factsheet
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba site factsheet
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla site factsheet
Spain Tietar valley site factsheet
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros site factsheet
Spain West Andévalo site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Temperate major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Avian Pox Virus (Poxvirus avium) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aquila adalberti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author Brehm, 1861
Population size 648 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 117,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species