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Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2011 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,580,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 12,800,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 160000 poor Estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -
Population justification: Even assuming densities as low as 1 pair / 100 km2 across 8 million km2 range there would be 80,000 pairs or 160,000 mature individuals (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001), thus this figure is given here as a preliminary, minimum estimate.
Trend justification: The population is declining owing to habitat destruction (especially conversion of steppe into agricultural land), persecution, and collisions with power lines. Locally populations are declining owing to heavy predation of chicks (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant      
Angola Vagrant Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belarus Vagrant Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burundi Vagrant Extant      
Cameroon Vagrant Extant      
Chad Vagrant Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Croatia Vagrant Extant      
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Vagrant Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Vagrant Extant      
Georgia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant      
Hungary Vagrant Extant   Yes  
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes Yes
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Mali Vagrant Extant      
Moldova Native Extinct Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Niger Vagrant Extant      
Nigeria Vagrant Extant      
North Korea Vagrant Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extinct Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Rwanda Native Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Somalia Vagrant Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes
Spain Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Tunisia Vagrant Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Vietnam Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains site factsheet
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sagyz site factsheet
Kazakhstan Western edge of the Karakoyin and Zhetikonyr Sands site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Plateau Ukok site factsheet
Russia (European) Kalausskiye floods site factsheet
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river site factsheet
Russia (European) Sources of Akshibai river site factsheet
Russia (European) Tazhinski liman site factsheet
Turkey Hodulbaba Mountain site factsheet
Turkey Tuz Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 7900 m


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aquila nipalensis. Downloaded from on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author Hodgson, 1833
Population size 160000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,580,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species