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VU
West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 102,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 1,999 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Increasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -
Population justification: A population estimate of 10,000-19,999 individuals is derived from L. G. Sorenson (in litt. 2007) and L. Mugica (in litt. 2007). This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. However, this should be revised upwards if recent estimates from Cuba (L. Mugica in litt. 2011) are confirmed.
Trend justification: This species's population is increasing at a moderate rate, owing to conservation efforts across the region (L. Sorenson in litt. 2012).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Anguilla (to UK) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant       Yes
Bahamas Native Extant Yes      
Barbados Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Cuba Native Extant Yes      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Dominica Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Dominican Republic Native Extant Yes      
Grenada Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Guadeloupe (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Haiti Native Extant Yes      
Jamaica Native Extant Yes      
Martinique (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant Yes      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant Yes      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant       Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Cove site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Codrington Lagoon and the Creek site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Fitches Creek Bay site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Hanson's Bay – Flashes site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay site factsheet
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands site factsheet
Bahamas Great Inagua site factsheet
Bahamas Grog Pond site factsheet
Bahamas Lee Stocking Island site factsheet
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay site factsheet
Bahamas San Andros Pond site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Booby Pond Nature Reserve site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Botanic Park and Salina Reserve site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Central Mangrove Wetland site factsheet
Cayman Islands (to UK) Crown Wetlands site factsheet
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara site factsheet
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas site factsheet
Cuba Cayos Romano - Cruz - Megano Grande site factsheet
Cuba Cienaga de Lanier y Sur de la Isla de la Juventud site factsheet
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Cauto site factsheet
Cuba Delta del Mayarí site factsheet
Cuba Desembarco del Granma site factsheet
Cuba Gibara site factsheet
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila site factsheet
Cuba Guanahacabibes site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Pinar del Río site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus site factsheet
Cuba Las Picuas - Del Cristo Cay site factsheet
Cuba Río Máximo site factsheet
Cuba Sierra del Chorrillo site factsheet
Dominican Republic Bahía de las Calderas site factsheet
Dominican Republic Enriquillo Lake site factsheet
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park site factsheet
Haiti Lagon-aux-Boeufs site factsheet
Jamaica Black River Great Morass site factsheet
Jamaica Font Hill site factsheet
Jamaica Hellshire Hills site factsheet
Jamaica Negril site factsheet
Jamaica Portland Ridge and Bight site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Caño Tiburones site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Cienaga Las Cucharillas site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Humacao site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Sierra Bermeja and Laguna Cartagena site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Middle Caicos Forest site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Dendrocygna arborea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, Swans)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 102,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species