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Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium Estimated 0
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 18.5 - - -
Population justification: Partners in Flight estimated the population to number fewer than 50,000 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008), thus it is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals here.
Trend justification: This species is suspected to lose 27.6-45.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (56 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, losses outside Amazonia are judged to be likely to be lower (A. Lees in litt. 2011), so the species is therefore suspected to decline by 25-30% over three generations.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Argentina Native Extant Yes      
Belize Native Extant Yes      
Bolivia Native Extant Yes      
Brazil Native Extant Yes      
Colombia Native Extant Yes      
Costa Rica Native Extant       Yes
Ecuador Native Extant Yes      
French Guiana Native Extant Yes      
Guatemala Native Extant Yes      
Guyana Native Extant Yes      
Honduras Native Extant Yes      
Mexico Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant Yes      
Panama Native Extant Yes      
Paraguay Native Extant Yes      
Peru Native Extant Yes      
Suriname Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Piray Guazú site factsheet
Argentina Cuenca del Piray Miní site factsheet
Argentina Parque Provincial Urugua-í site factsheet
Argentina Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí site factsheet
Argentina Sierra Morena site factsheet
Belize Maya Mountains and southern reserves site factsheet
Belize Rio Bravo CMA Gallon Jug Estate site factsheet
Bolivia Noel Kempff Mercado site factsheet
Bolivia Reserva de Inmovilización Iténez site factsheet
Bolivia Reserva Nacional Amazónica Manuripi Heath site factsheet
Bolivia Yungas Inferiores de Madidi site factsheet
Brazil Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais e Entorno site factsheet
Brazil Arquipélago de Anavilhanas site factsheet
Brazil Campinas e Várzeas do Rio Branco site factsheet
Brazil Caxiuanã / Portel site factsheet
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo site factsheet
Brazil Estação Ecológica Serra das Araras site factsheet
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia site factsheet
Brazil Ji-Paraná / Roosevelt site factsheet
Brazil Mamirauá site factsheet
Brazil Parque Estadual do Cantão site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Amazônia site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães e Adjacências site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena e Entorno site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional do Jaú site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque site factsheet
Brazil Reserva Biológica do Rio Trombetas site factsheet
Brazil Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural SESC Pantanal e Entorno site factsheet
Brazil Rio Capim site factsheet
Brazil Saltos das Andorinhas e de Dardanelos site factsheet
Brazil Serra do Tabuleiro State Park (Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro IBA) site factsheet
Brazil Serra dos Carajás site factsheet
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares site factsheet
Brazil Vale do Guaporé site factsheet
Colombia Estación Biológica Mosiro-Itajura site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos site factsheet
Colombia Reserva Regional Bajo Cauca Nechí site factsheet
Colombia Serranía de las Minas site factsheet
Costa Rica Sierpe Wetlands and Osa Peninsula site factsheet
Ecuador Bajo Napo site factsheet
Ecuador Gran Yasuní site factsheet
Ecuador Reserva de Producción Faunística Cuyabeno site factsheet
Ecuador Territorio Achuar site factsheet
French Guiana Nouragues site factsheet
French Guiana Parc Amazonien de Guyane et Saül site factsheet
French Guiana Trinité site factsheet
Guyana Karaw/Aruka site factsheet
Guyana Mapari - Kanuku Mountain site factsheet
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca site factsheet
Honduras Rio Platano site factsheet
Honduras Tawahka site factsheet
Nicaragua Bosawas site factsheet
Nicaragua Indio Maíz site factsheet
Nicaragua Punta Gorda site factsheet
Nicaragua San Juan River - La Inmaculada Concepcion de Maria site factsheet
Panama Darién National Park site factsheet
Panama La Amistad International Park (part of La Amistad and Surrounding Areas AZE) site factsheet
Peru Alto Purus site factsheet
Peru Bahuaja-Sonene site factsheet
Peru Cuenca Río Nanay site factsheet
Peru Manu site factsheet
Peru Parque Nacional Cordillera Azul site factsheet
Peru Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria site factsheet
Peru Río Orosa site factsheet
Peru Tambopata site factsheet
Suriname Bakhuys mountains site factsheet
Suriname Centraal Suriname Nature Reserve (CSNR) site factsheet
Suriname Grensgebergte/Toemoek-hoemak site factsheet
Suriname Kabalebo / Arapahu site factsheet
Venezuela Campamento Junglaven site factsheet
Venezuela Henri Pittier National Park (Parque Nacional Henri Pittier IBA) site factsheet
Venezuela Monumento Natural Tepui Guaiquinima site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Canaima site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Duida-Marahuaca site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Guatopo site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Mariusa-Delta del Orinoco site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Parima-Tapirapecó site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Perijá (part of Serrania de Perija transboundary AZE) site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional San Esteban site factsheet
Venezuela Parque Nacional Serranía La Neblina site factsheet
Venezuela Reserva Forestal Imataca site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2000 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Harpia harpyja. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,600,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species