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Mantled Hawk Pseudastur polionotus

Justification
This species is thought to have a small population, which is suspected to be experiencing a moderately rapid decline owing to habitat loss and fragmentation. It is consequently classified as Near Threatened, but further information on its population size and trends may result in a revision of its threat status.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Pseudastur polionotus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Leucopternis.

Synonym(s)
Leucopternis polionota Stotz et al. (1996), Leucopternis polionota BirdLife International (2004), Leucopternis polionota BirdLife International (2000), Leucopternis polionota Collar et al. (1994), Leucopternis polionota Collar and Andrew (1988), Leucopternis polionota Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Leucopternis polionotus (Kaup, 1847)

Distribution and population
Leucopternis polionotus is rare to locally fairly common in east Brazil (Alagoas to Rio Grande do Sul) (A. E. Rupp in litt. 2011), and rare in east Uruguay and south-east Paraguay (only three records, with the last in 1989, despite recent extensive fieldwork; now possibly extinct) (Bierregaard 1994, Hayes 1995, Parker et al. 1996, R. Clay in litt. 2011). It is considered hypothetical in Misiones, Argentina (Mazar Barnett and Pearman 2001). This species is considered less obviously threatened by deforestation than White-necked Hawk L. lacernulata (because of its more upland and extensive range), but it appears to occur at very low densities, and the overall population seems unlikely to exceed the uppermost hundreds (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Population justification
This species appears to exist at very low densities, prompting Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) to infer that the total population is unlikely to exceed the uppermost hundreds; however, this seems very conservative given its extensive range. Pending further research, the population is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid decline owing to continued habitat loss.

Ecology
It occurs in lowland and mid-elevation humid forests, especially in foothills. It has also been recorded in secondary growth and, in Paraná plantations (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). It is found at sea-level to at least 1,500 m (probably mainly above 500 m) (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).




Threats
Agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production historically threatened its habitats (Fearnside 1996). Current key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995). In Brazil, observations suggest that the species has adapted to landscapes composed of pine plantations and native forest (A. E. Rupp in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. In Brazil, the species occurs in a number of protected areas, including Serra do Itajaí National Park (NP), Araucárias NP, Sâo Joaquin NP and Sassafrás Biological Reserve (A. E. Rupp in litt. 2011). The species was the focus of a recent MSc thesis conducted at the Federal University of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, and supported by The Peregrine Fund (M. Canuto in litt. 2011). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys and monitoring to obtain accurate population and trend estimates. Study threats. Study its ecology and ability to persist in altered and fragmented habitats. Extend protected area network to include remaining core areas of forest. Effectively protect existing protected areas.

References
Bierregaard, R. O. 1994. Neotropical Accipitridae (Hawks and Eagles). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 52-205. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Fearnside, P. 1996. Brazil. In: Harcourt, C.S.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas, pp. 229-248. Simon & Schuster, New York and London.

Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Hayes, F. E. 1995. Status, distribution and biogeography of the birds of Paraguay. American Birding Association, Colorado Springs.

Mazar Barnett, J.; Pearman, M. 2001. Annotated checklist ofthe birds of Argentina. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Canuto, M., Clay, R., Rupp, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pseudastur polionotus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Kaup, 1847)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 640,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species