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Moluccan Goshawk Accipiter henicogrammus
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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This species has been uplisted to Near Threatened on the basis that it is suspected that it will undergo a moderately rapid population decline over three generations, from 2004 until 2026, owing to past rates of forest loss and the assumption that these will continue.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Accipiter henicogrammus is found on the islands of Morotai, Halmahera and Bacan (at least), Indonesia (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 670-6,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat destruction (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). A recent study by Vetter (2009) used remote sensing techniques to track the rate and spatial pattern of forest loss in the North Maluku Endemic Bird Area between 1990 and 2003, and project rates of deforestation over three generations for restricted range bird species found in this region, with consequent recommendations for category changes on the IUCN Red List. This study estimated the rate of forest loss within the geographic and elevation range of Moluccan Goshawk to be c.20% between 1990 and 2003, and projected the loss of c.36% of forest in its range over three generations (estimated by BirdLife to be c.22 years, based on an estimated generation length of c.7.2 years). However, it may be tolerant of some habitat modification, and it is found at higher elevations, where forest is expected to be comparatively more secure, perhaps buffering its population against the impacts of projected forest loss throughout its geographic range, thus the population decline is suspected to be 25-29% over 22 years, from 2004 until 2026.

The species inhabits hill and mountain forest and forest edge from sea-level to 1,300 m, mostly above 200 m (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).


The primary threat to the species is habitat loss through commercial logging for timber, and clearance for shifting agriculture, mining, settlements and plantations of oil palm, coffee, rubber and timber species (Vetter 2009, Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014). North Maluku province in undergoing a phase of rapid development (Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014). Another potential threat is posed by wildfires, which have devastated areas on other Indonesian islands, with the chances of such fires being increased by the conversion of forest to scrub and grassland and the opening up of forests for road construction, as well as selective logging and fragmentation (Vetter 2009).

Conservation Actions Underway
There are no targeted conservation actions known for this species, although it occurs in Aketajawe Lolobata National Park (Burung Indonesia in litt. 2014).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the species's population size. Conduct regular surveys to monitor the population trend. Track rates of habitat loss through regular studies of satellite images. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status.

Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Vetter, J. 2009. Impacts of Deforestation on the Conservation Status of Endemic Birds in the North Maluku Endemic Bird Area from 1990-2003. Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M. & Taylor, J.

Burung Indonesia

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Accipiter henicogrammus. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Gray, 1860)
Population size 670-6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species