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LC
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 29,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 19,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.1,300,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Vagrant Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant   Yes  
Austria Native Extant   Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant     Yes
Belize Native Extant   Yes  
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
Cambodia Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Colombia Native Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Croatia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Georgia Native Extant     Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Grenada Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant      
Guatemala Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant   Yes  
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant     Yes
Jamaica Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant   Yes  
Lithuania Native Extant      
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Malaysia Vagrant Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant   Yes  
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
Nicaragua Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant      
Panama Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant     Yes
Portugal Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Romania Native Extant   Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes  
Senegal Vagrant Extant      
Serbia Native Extant   Yes  
Singapore Vagrant Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
South Korea Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant     Yes
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Sweden Native Extant     Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes  
Syria Native Extant   Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Yemen Vagrant Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Belarus Balota Zvaniec site factsheet
Belarus Chavanščyna site factsheet
Belarus Kaz'jany site factsheet
Belarus L'va floodplain site factsheet
Czech Republic Komarov site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Puhatu mire site factsheet
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests site factsheet
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires site factsheet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju site factsheet
Finland Litokaira site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira site factsheet
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands site factsheet
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet site factsheet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira site factsheet
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune site factsheet
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux site factsheet
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud site factsheet
France Bassigny site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais site factsheet
France Etangs d'Argonne site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan site factsheet
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs site factsheet
France Forêt du Gavre site factsheet
France Forêts du Perche site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants site factsheet
France Gorges de la Sioule site factsheet
France Gorges de la Truyère site factsheet
France Haut Val d'Allier site factsheet
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens site factsheet
France Marais de Brière site factsheet
France Parc National des Cévennes site factsheet
France Petite Beauce site factsheet
France Plateau Ardennais site factsheet
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq site factsheet
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux site factsheet
France Sologne Bourbonnaise site factsheet
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais site factsheet
France Vallée de l'Aisne site factsheet
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz site factsheet
Netherlands Ameland: Duinen-Oerd site factsheet
Netherlands Schiermonnikoog site factsheet
Netherlands Terschelling: Dunes and Noordvaarder site factsheet
Netherlands Texel: Dunes and Hors site factsheet
Netherlands Vlieland site factsheet
Portugal Gerês mountains site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Serras do Alvão e Marão site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului site factsheet
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni site factsheet
Romania Giurgeu Depression site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului site factsheet
Romania Râului Negru valley site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Slovenia Črete site factsheet
Slovenia Lake Cerknica site factsheet
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor site factsheet
Slovenia River Drava site factsheet
Spain Babia-Somiedo site factsheet
Spain Fresser-Setcases site factsheet
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Talamanca-Camarma site factsheet
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges site factsheet
Sweden Sjaunja site factsheet
United Kingdom Airds Moss and Muirkirk Uplands site factsheet
United Kingdom Antrim Hills site factsheet
United Kingdom Arran Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Ballaugh Curraghs site factsheet
United Kingdom Berwyn site factsheet
United Kingdom Bowland Fells site factsheet
United Kingdom Broadland site factsheet
United Kingdom Cairngorms site factsheet
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands site factsheet
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests site factsheet
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie site factsheet
United Kingdom Glen App and Galloway Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains site factsheet
United Kingdom Isle of Man Hills site factsheet
United Kingdom Langholm - Newcastleton Hills site factsheet
United Kingdom Migneint - Arenig - Dduallt site factsheet
United Kingdom New Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom North Lowther Hills site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors site factsheet
United Kingdom Renfrewshire Heights site factsheet
United Kingdom Salisbury Plain site factsheet
United Kingdom Slieve Beagh - Mullaghfad - Lisnaskea site factsheet
United Kingdom Stodmarsh site factsheet
United Kingdom Strath Fleet and Strath Carnaig Moor site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5000 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Circus cyaneus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1766)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 29,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species