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VU
Black Harrier Circus maurus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable D1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 494,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 494,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Stable medium -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.8 - - -
Population justification: The total population is estimated at 1,000-1,500 individuals (R.E. Simmons in litt. 2007); however, it is thought that the number of mature individuals does not exceed 1,000, thus the range 250-999 mature individuals is retained for the population estimate.
Trend justification: Recently, the population is thought to have experienced a slight decline owing to the loss of some patches of renosterveld vegetation in Overberg (R.E. Simmons in litt. 2007). Future declines may occur because of a predicted decrease in rainfall in the western parts of its range, which could lead to a reduction in mouse populations (R.E. Simmons in litt. 2007). However, the trend is maintained as stable until further data are obtained.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Botswana Vagrant Extant      
Lesotho Native Extant   Yes  
Namibia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
Swaziland Vagrant Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Lesotho Mafika - Lisiu site factsheet
Lesotho Sehonghong and Matebeng site factsheet
South Africa Alexandria coastal belt site factsheet
South Africa Amatole Forest Complex site factsheet
South Africa Bitterputs Conservation Area site factsheet
South Africa Chelmsford Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Eastern False Bay mountains site factsheet
South Africa Fouriesburg - Bethlehem - Clarens site factsheet
South Africa Golden Gate Highlands National Park site factsheet
South Africa Greater Ingwangwana River site factsheet
South Africa Haramoep and Black Mountain Mine Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Katberg - Readsdale forest complex site factsheet
South Africa Kouga - Baviaanskloof Complex site factsheet
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Mattheus-Gat Conservation Area site factsheet
South Africa Overberg Wheatbelt site factsheet
South Africa Southern Langeberg mountains site factsheet
South Africa Tsitsikamma National Park site factsheet
South Africa UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park site factsheet
South Africa Umtamvuna Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Umvoti Vlei site factsheet
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) marginal resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Abstraction of ground water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Circus maurus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Temminck, 1828)
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 494,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions