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White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable C1+2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,910,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 7000-12500 poor Estimated 1992
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 7000-12500 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -
Population justification: An estimate of 7,000-12,500 mature individuals was extrapolated from a number of regional estimates. This equates to 10,500-18,750 individuals in total, here rounded to 10,000-20,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The species has shown severe declines throughout its West African range (F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 2006; J.M. Thiollay in litt. 2006) and also across southern Africa (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), thus its global population is estimated to be declining at a slow to moderate rate.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola Native Extant   Yes  
Benin Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant Yes    
Burkina Faso Native Extant Yes    
Burundi Native Extant   Yes  
Cameroon Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant   Yes  
Chad Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant Yes    
Djibouti Native Extant Yes    
Eritrea Native Extant   Yes  
Ethiopia Native Extant Yes    
Gabon Native Extant   Yes  
Gambia Native Extant Yes    
Ghana Native Extant Yes    
Guinea Native Extant   Yes  
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant   Yes  
Kenya Native Extant Yes    
Malawi Native Extant Yes    
Mali Native Extant Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant Yes    
Mozambique Native Extant   Yes  
Namibia Native Extant Yes    
Niger Native Extant Yes    
Nigeria Native Extant Yes    
Rwanda Native Extant Yes    
Senegal Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant Yes    
South Africa Native Extant Yes    
South Sudan Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant Yes    
Swaziland Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant Yes    
Togo Native Extant   Yes  
Uganda Native Extant Yes    
Zambia Native Extant Yes    
Zimbabwe Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Trigonoceps occipitalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Burchell, 1824)
Population size 7000-12500 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,910,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions