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LC
Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Trend justification
The population is increasing throughout much of its European range and re-introductions have taken place in France. The central Asian population is suspected to be stable. Populations in North Africa and Turkey are suspected to be in decline owing to persecution, shooting, poisoning and loss of suitable food owing to changing farming practices. However, the overall population trend is suspected to be increasing.

Ecology
Behaviour Some birds are migratory, overwintering in Africa, although many others are resident or nomadic (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It relies heavily on soaring flight, and has been shown to fly at altitudes of 10,000 m and higher. Birds hunt alone but congregate at food sources and roosts; they also tend to migrate singly, but concentrations (usually up to 15 individuals) form at sea crossings and strong thermals (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat It is a species of expansive open areas in a wide array of environments, from mountains to semi-desert, and is recorded regularly from sea level up to c.3,000 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet It feeds almost exclusively on carrion, mainly that of large mammals (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site The nest is usually built on a rocky outcrop, with sheltered ledges or small caves preferred (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information Effective protection in areas with a plentiful supply of food (which often includes the carrion of domestic animals), has been shown to catalyse impressive population recoveries, and reintroduction has been successful in parts of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1994).

Threats
It declined markedly throughout the 19th-20th centuries in much of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, mainly due to direct persecution and "bycatch" from the poisoned carcasses set for livestock predators (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Snow and Perrins 1998, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). In some areas a reduction in available food supplies, arising from changes in livestock management practices, also had an impact (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). It is very highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Strix. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Jump to the case study for this species in Wildlife comeback in Europe: The recovery of selected mammal and bird species (Deniet et al. 2003)

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Khwaja, N.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gyps fulvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Hablizl, 1783)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species