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White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered A2bce+4bce 
Endangered A2bce+4bce 
Vulnerable A2bce+4bce; C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Critically Endangered
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
Average mass 4385.0 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,170,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,350,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16 - - -
Population justification: Formerly described as possibly the most abundant large bird of prey in the world, this species global population almost certainly numbered several million individuals. However, following dramatic declines through the 1990's across its range its global population is now estimated to fall within the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Trend justification: The species declined in South-East Asia during the 20th century, apparently as a result of the collapse of large ungulate populations owing to over-harvesting by human hunters. Declines in the major part of the population throughout the Indian Subcontinent probably began in the 1990s and were very rapid, resulting in an overall population decline of greater than 99% over a 10-15 year period.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Native Extinct Yes      
Bhutan Native Extant Yes      
Brunei Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Cambodia Native Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Extinct Yes      
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Laos Native Extant Yes      
Malaysia Native Extinct Yes      
Myanmar Native Extant Yes      
Nepal Native Extant Yes      
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Russia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Russia (European) Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Thailand Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bangladesh Jamuna-Brahmaputra river site factsheet
Bangladesh Lawachara / West Bhanugach Reserved Forest site factsheet
Bhutan Royal Manas National Park site factsheet
Cambodia Chhep site factsheet
Cambodia Lomphat site factsheet
Cambodia Mekong River from Kratie to Lao PDR site factsheet
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands site factsheet
Cambodia Sekong River site factsheet
Cambodia Sesan River site factsheet
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment site factsheet
Cambodia Western Siem Pang site factsheet
China (mainland) Xishuangbanna site factsheet
India Amarambalam Reserved Forest - Nilambur site factsheet
India Amchang Hills site factsheet
India Asan Barrage site factsheet
India Bagdarrah Closed Area site factsheet
India Balpakram Complex site factsheet
India Bandhavgarh National Park site factsheet
India Bandipur National Park site factsheet
India Bannerghatta National Park site factsheet
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand site factsheet
India Bardha Dam site factsheet
India Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Basai wetlands site factsheet
India Bauwwa Beel site factsheet
India Bhashkarpara site factsheet
India Bherjan-Borajan-Podumoni Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhimgad Forests site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and Hills site factsheet
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bordoloni - Sampora site factsheet
India Bori Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Buxa Tiger Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Chail Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Chakrashila Complex site factsheet
India Chandaka - Dampara Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Charakla Saltworks site factsheet
India Corbett Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary and Godavari estuary site factsheet
India Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Dachigam National Park site factsheet
India Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Desert National Park site factsheet
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Dhauludhar Wildlife Sanctuary and McLeod Gunj site factsheet
India Dibang Reserve Forest and adjacent areas site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands site factsheet
India Diyatra Closed Area site factsheet
India Dudhwa National Park site factsheet
India Dum Duma, Dangori and Kumsong Reserve Forests site factsheet
India East and North Karbi Anglong Wildlife Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Fambong Lho Wildlife Sanctuary - Himalayan Zoological Park - Ratey Chu Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Farakka Barrage and adjoining area site factsheet
India Gangapur Dam and grasslands site factsheet
India Gibbon (Hollongapar) Sanctuary site factsheet
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Gobind Sagar and Naina Devi Wildlife Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Gomarda Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Gorumara National Park site factsheet
India Gudavi Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Halali Reservoir site factsheet
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary and North Karanpur Valley site factsheet
India Horsley Hills site factsheet
India Indravati National Park and Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Innerline, Katakal and Barak Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Jaikwadi Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jaisamand Lake and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jamjing and Sengajan site factsheet
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh site factsheet
India Jogimatti Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kanha National Park site factsheet
India Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Kemmangundi and Bababudan Hills site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Khichan site factsheet
India Kokkare Bellur site factsheet
India Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir site factsheet
India Kuarbari Dalani site factsheet
India Kulik (Raiganj) Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes site factsheet
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs site factsheet
India Lowland forests of South Sikkim (Melli-Baguwa-Kitam, Jorethang-Namchi, Sombarey) site factsheet
India Lumding - Marat Longri site factsheet
India Madhav National Park site factsheet
India Mahananda Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mahul - Sewree Creek site factsheet
India Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Manas National Park site factsheet
India Melghat Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Melkote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands site factsheet
India Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mudumalai National Park site factsheet
India Nagarhole National Park site factsheet
India Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Nandi Hills site factsheet
India Nandur Madhmeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Narasambudhi Lake site factsheet
India Narora site factsheet
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE) site factsheet
India Navegaon National Park site factsheet
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex site factsheet
India Nokrek National Park site factsheet
India Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pabho Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Palamau Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Panna National Park site factsheet
India Patna Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pench Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Phulwari Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pong Dam Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pulicat Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Rajaji National Park site factsheet
India Rajiv Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary (Nagarjunasagar - Srisailam Tiger Reserve) site factsheet
India Ramanagara Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Ramnagar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Rampura Grassland site factsheet
India Ramsagar Lake site factsheet
India Ranebennur Blackbuck Sanctuary site factsheet
India Rangananthittu Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Ratapani Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests site factsheet
India Sailana Kharmor Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sajjangarh Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sambhar Lake site factsheet
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park site factsheet
India Sarah Valley, Lower Dharamshala site factsheet
India Sareri Bandh site factsheet
India Sariska Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Satkosia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sei Dam reservoir and surrounding environs site factsheet
India Sharavathi Valley Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sibsagar Tanks site factsheet
India Simlipal National Park site factsheet
India Sitamata Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Son Beel site factsheet
India Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sonkhaliya Closed Area site factsheet
India Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Subansiri site factsheet
India Sultanpur National Park site factsheet
India Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Tadoba National Park and Andhari Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Taloda Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex site factsheet
India Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India The Chapories of Lohit Reserve site factsheet
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Tirap - Burhidihing site factsheet
India Toranmal Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Udanti and Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Udhuwa Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex site factsheet
India Upper Dihing (West) Complex site factsheet
India Urpod Beel site factsheet
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary site factsheet
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Wynaad Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Laos Attapu Plain site factsheet
Laos Dong Khanthung site factsheet
Laos Siphandon site factsheet
Laos Xe Khampho / Xe Pian site factsheet
Laos Xe Kong Plains site factsheet
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Shwegu Section site factsheet
Myanmar Bwe Pa site factsheet
Myanmar Htamanthi site factsheet
Myanmar Hukaung Valley site factsheet
Myanmar Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings site factsheet
Myanmar Inle Lake site factsheet
Myanmar Kamaing site factsheet
Myanmar Myitkyina-Nandebad-Talawagyi site factsheet
Myanmar Nam San Valley site factsheet
Myanmar Ninety-six Inns site factsheet
Myanmar Upper Mogaung Chaung basin site factsheet
Myanmar Uyu River site factsheet
Myanmar Zeihmu Range site factsheet
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area site factsheet
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Dang Deukhuri foothill forests and west Rapti wetlands site factsheet
Nepal Dharan forests site factsheet
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area site factsheet
Nepal Ghodaghodi Lake site factsheet
Nepal Jagdishpur Reservoir site factsheet
Nepal Khaptad National Park site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Nepal Mai Valley forests site factsheet
Nepal Nawalparasi forests site factsheet
Nepal Parsa Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Nepal Rampur valley site factsheet
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge site factsheet
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex site factsheet
Thailand Huai Kha Khaeng site factsheet
Vietnam Chu M'lanh site factsheet
Vietnam Ya Lop site factsheet
Vietnam Yok Don site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 3000 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gyps bengalensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1788)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,170,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species