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Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 
Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2007 Endangered
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 2082 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 14,900,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 13000-41000 medium Estimated 2007
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 14 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 3,300-5,050 breeding pairs, equating to 9,900-15,150 individuals. Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 20,000-61,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 13,000-41,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The species declining in virtually all parts of its range, apparently for a number of different reasons. In India, it has declined by >90% in the last decade; European populations have declined by >50% over the last three generations, and West, East and southern African populations also appear to have declined significantly, as do Arabian populations (Jennings 2010).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant Yes    
Andorra Native Extant     Yes
Angola Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant      
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Benin Native Extant   Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Botswana Vagrant Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Unknown Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Unknown Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Vagrant Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant Yes    
Gambia Vagrant Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant   Yes  
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Unknown Extant      
Hungary Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant     Yes
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant   Yes  
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Lesotho Vagrant Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant     Yes
Mauritania Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Vagrant Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant Yes    
Mozambique Vagrant Extant      
Myanmar Vagrant Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant Yes    
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant Yes    
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Native Extant Yes   Yes
Qatar Vagrant Extant      
Romania Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Slovakia Vagrant Extant      
Slovenia Vagrant Extant Yes   Yes
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extinct      
South Sudan Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant Yes   Yes
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Togo Native Extant   Yes  
Tunisia Native Extant Yes    
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Unknown Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant      
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes    
Yemen Native Extant     Yes
Zimbabwe Vagrant Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Big Pamir site factsheet
Afghanistan Hari Rud valley site factsheet
Afghanistan Jalalabad valley site factsheet
Afghanistan North-western steppe site factsheet
Armenia Dsegh site factsheet
Armenia Gorayk site factsheet
Armenia Jermook site factsheet
Armenia Khosrov Reserve site factsheet
Armenia Meghri site factsheet
Armenia Noravank site factsheet
Armenia Tashir site factsheet
Armenia Zangezoor site factsheet
Azerbaijan Korchai area site factsheet
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland site factsheet
Bulgaria Arda Bridge site factsheet
Bulgaria Byala Reka site factsheet
Bulgaria Dobrostan site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Krumovitza site factsheet
Bulgaria Lomovete site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets site factsheet
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs site factsheet
France Chaîne des Alpilles site factsheet
France Gorges du Gardon site factsheet
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion site factsheet
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin. site factsheet
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau site factsheet
France Massif du Petit Lubéron site factsheet
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut site factsheet
Greece Antikhassia mountains and Meteora site factsheet
Greece Area of Oriokastro, Lake Delvinaki, Meropis forest, Gormou valley and Mounts Kasidiaris and Douskon site factsheet
Greece Central part of Zagori and Mount Mitsikeli site factsheet
Greece Dadias-Dereiou-Aisimis forest site factsheet
Greece Filiouri river valley and east Rodopi mountains site factsheet
Greece Mount Paramithias site factsheet
Greece Mounts Tsamanta, Filiaton, Pharmakovouni, and Megali Rahi site factsheet
Greece Protected area of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli forest site factsheet
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture site factsheet
Greece Timfi (Gamila) and Smolikas mountains site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas site factsheet
Iraq Bakhma, Dukan and Darbandikhan dams site factsheet
Iraq Benavi site factsheet
Iraq Dori Serguza site factsheet
Iraq Mahzam and Lake Tharthar site factsheet
Iraq Ser Amadiya site factsheet
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands site factsheet
Israel Judean desert site factsheet
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains site factsheet
Jordan Dana site factsheet
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum site factsheet
Jordan Maghtas - Sweimeh site factsheet
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor) site factsheet
Jordan Petra site factsheet
Jordan Wadi Mujib site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat site factsheet
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Boshavija site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Demir Kapija Gorge site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Tikvesh site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Mariovo site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Raec valley site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Taor Gorge site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Tikvesh Region site factsheet
Oman Fahl Island site factsheet
Oman Jabal al Akhdar site factsheet
Oman Khawr ad Dahariz site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar site factsheet
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness site factsheet
Portugal Côa valley site factsheet
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge site factsheet
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube site factsheet
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains site factsheet
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Gunibskoye plateau site factsheet
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Kezenoi-Am lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley site factsheet
Russia (European) Orota depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk site factsheet
Russia (European) Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river site factsheet
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river site factsheet
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills site factsheet
Russia (European) Skalisti ridge between Urup and Maly Zelenchuk rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river site factsheet
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Gizel'don river site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Khodz' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Jabal al-Lawz site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim site factsheet
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river site factsheet
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera site factsheet
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle site factsheet
Spain Babia-Somiedo site factsheet
Spain Bardenas Reales site factsheet
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho site factsheet
Spain Boumort mountains site factsheet
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains site factsheet
Spain Coast of Esquinzo-Puertito de Los Molinos site factsheet
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares site factsheet
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Famara crag site factsheet
Spain Guara mountain range site factsheet
Spain Gully of Ajuí-Betancuria site factsheet
Spain Izki mountains site factsheet
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range) site factsheet
Spain Lanzarote islets site factsheet
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Monfragüe site factsheet
Spain Montejo de la Vega-Riaza canyon site factsheet
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains site factsheet
Spain Morella pass site factsheet
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire site factsheet
Spain Obarenes mountains site factsheet
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Pozo Negro mountain-Vigán site factsheet
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca site factsheet
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero site factsheet
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range site factsheet
Spain San Pedro mountain range site factsheet
Spain Sant Gervás mountains site factsheet
Spain Tiermes-Caracena site factsheet
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa site factsheet
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña site factsheet
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range site factsheet
Spain Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges site factsheet
Syria Abu Zad site factsheet
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz site factsheet
Syria Jabal al-Bilas site factsheet
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains site factsheet
Syria Umm al-Tuyyur site factsheet
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains site factsheet
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests site factsheet
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir site factsheet
Turkmenistan Badhyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Garashor site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Jebel Hafit site factsheet
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Bashkyzylsay Unit of the Chatkal Mountains Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Uzbekistan Bukantau Mountain Range site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dzhum-Dzhum site factsheet
Uzbekistan Mount Aktau site factsheet
Uzbekistan Nuratau Range site factsheet
Uzbekistan Pulatkhan Gorge site factsheet
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau site factsheet
Yemen Aden site factsheet
Yemen Hajhir mountains, Socotra site factsheet
Yemen High mountains of Ibb site factsheet
Yemen Jabal Bura site factsheet
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Savanna Dry major non-breeding
Savanna Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Past Impact
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Medicine Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Neophron percnopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 13000-41000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 18,700,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions