Although widespread, this species is now only locally common and may have a moderately small population, which is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction owing to habitat degradation, pollution and over-fishing. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened as it almost qualifies for listing under criteria A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1+2a(i).
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
The genus Icthyophaga (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously spelled Ichthyophaga.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J. & Ashpole, J
Davidson, P. & Naoroji, R.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Icthyophaga ichthyaetus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Family||Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)|
|Species name author||(Horsfield, 1821)|
|Population size||10000-100000 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||4,840,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|