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Steller's Sea-eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered C2a(ii) 
Vulnerable  

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass 7757 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,340,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 887,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3600-3800 medium Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 4600-5100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.2 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.4,600-5,100 individuals, including c.1,830-1,900 breeding pairs (M. McGrady et al. in litt. 2012), assumed to be equivalent to c.3,600-3,800 mature individuals.
Trend justification: The species is suspected to be in moderate decline, owing to displacement following habitat conversion in its breeding grounds, and from mortality caused by lead poisoning in inland Japan.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant        
USA Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Laotieshan site factsheet
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan site factsheet
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
Japan Kiritappu marsh, Biwase bay site factsheet
Japan Lake Akkeshiko, Bekanbeushi marsh site factsheet
Japan Lake Furenko and nearby wetlands site factsheet
Japan Notsuke bay, Odaito site factsheet
Japan Shiretoko, Mount Syari-dake site factsheet
Japan Yakumo site factsheet
North Korea Kumya Bay site factsheet
North Korea Taedong River estuary site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aldoma bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Aniva bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Avacha bay (Khlamovitskiy Wildlife Reserve) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Babushkina bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Bol'shoye and Maloye lakes site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Chelomdzha valley and Kava-Chelomdzha interfluve site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Dal'dzi lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Inya valley site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Karaginskiy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kekurny bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Konstantin and Tugur bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kunashir island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril islands (between Urup and Paramushir) site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Kuril'skoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lopatka peninsula site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Kamchatka river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Makovetskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Mukhtel' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Nikolaya bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Schast'ya bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Semyachik lagoon site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Shantar islands site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Starichkov island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Stolbovoy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Talan island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Tyuleniy island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Utashud island site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Vakhil' river mouth site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon site factsheet
South Korea Hwajinpo-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Songji-ho lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus pelagicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Pallas, 1811)
Population size 3600-3800 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,340,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species