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White-tailed Sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2005 Least Concern
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type continent
shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,760,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,090,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 13000-26000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.5 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 5,000-6,600 breeding pairs, equating to 15,000-19,800 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 50-74% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 20,300-39,600 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea; < c.100 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is increasing locally owing to conservation measures such as protecting eyries, providing safe (non-poisoned) food and re-introductions to certain areas such as Bavaria (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant       Yes
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Vagrant Extinct        
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant     Yes Yes
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Vagrant Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Vagrant Extant        
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Unknown Extant        
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant   Yes    
Georgia Native Extant       Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant   Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant   Yes    
Italy Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Japan Native Extant       Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant   Yes    
Latvia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Moldova Native Extant     Yes Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Vagrant Extant        
Nepal Native Extant   Yes    
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
North Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant       Yes
Pakistan Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant     Yes Yes
Portugal Vagrant Extinct Yes      
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant     Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Slovakia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Syria Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes    
Tajikistan Unknown Extant        
Thailand Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Vagrant Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Kingdom Reintroduced Extant       Yes
USA Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak site factsheet
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest site factsheet
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna site factsheet
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Belarus Čyrvony Bor site factsheet
Belarus Polesie Reserve site factsheet
Belarus Sialiec site factsheet
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty site factsheet
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir site factsheet
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchia Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Lakat Island site factsheet
Bulgaria Ropotamo Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Srebarna site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial forests from Podravska Slatina to Vuka site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava site factsheet
Croatia Jelas field including fishponds and wet pastures along Sava RIver site factsheet
Croatia Lower Sava river site factsheet
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds site factsheet
Czech Republic Nove Mlyny middle reservoir site factsheet
Czech Republic Pálava site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Denmark Arreskov Sø site factsheet
Denmark Hostrup Sø, Assenholm Mose and Felsted Vestermark site factsheet
Denmark Lillebælt site factsheet
Denmark Maribo lakes site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Irbe strait site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes site factsheet
Finland Oulu region wetlands site factsheet
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands site factsheet
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago site factsheet
France Barthes de l'Adour site factsheet
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands site factsheet
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa site factsheet
Hungary Bihar Plain site factsheet
Hungary Dráva site factsheet
Hungary Gemenc site factsheet
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to site factsheet
Hungary Inner Somogy site factsheet
Hungary Kis-Sárrét site factsheet
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley site factsheet
Hungary Middle Tisza site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lisar Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah site factsheet
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys site factsheet
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir site factsheet
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zharsor-Urkash Salt Lakes site factsheet
Latvia Engure lake site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds site factsheet
Lithuania Blinstrubiskis forest with neighbouring fish-pond areas site factsheet
Lithuania Grybaulia fish-farm site factsheet
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone site factsheet
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Norway Froan site factsheet
Norway Lovunden site factsheet
Norway Smøla archipelago site factsheet
Norway Solvær archipelago site factsheet
Norway Sør-Fugløy site factsheet
Norway Vega archipelago site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Barlinek Forest site factsheet
Poland Barycz river valley site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Drawa River Site site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Forest at Gwda River site factsheet
Poland Goleniow Forest site factsheet
Poland Ilawa Forest site factsheet
Poland Insko Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Odra river valley site factsheet
Poland Lower Silesia Forests site factsheet
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest site factsheet
Poland Notec Forest site factsheet
Poland Odra riverine forests site factsheet
Poland Pasleka river valley site factsheet
Poland Pisz forest site factsheet
Poland Sandomierz Forest site factsheet
Poland Stobrawa Watershed site factsheet
Poland Szczecin lagoon site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Poland Vistula Lagoon site factsheet
Poland Warmia Site site factsheet
Poland Witnica-Debno Site site factsheet
Poland Wkrzanska Forest site factsheet
Poland Wloszczowa Basin site factsheet
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Confluenţa Jiu - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave site factsheet
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare site factsheet
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Russia (European) Akhtubinsk wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya site factsheet
Russia (European) Bogdinsko-Baskunchakski site factsheet
Russia (European) Bulgarski site factsheet
Russia (European) Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Curonian (Courish) Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Dono-Archedinskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Lake Il'men' site factsheet
Russia (European) Ivinski flood-plain (Verkhnesvirskoye reservoir) site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Kandalaksha Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Karakulinskaya flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) Kazachka site factsheet
Russia (European) Khoper Nature Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Khvalynski National Park site factsheet
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kumikushski wetland site factsheet
Russia (European) Large liman site factsheet
Russia (European) Migulinskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Neman river Delta and the coast of the Curonian (Courish) Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Nizhnekamskaya flood-plain site factsheet
Russia (European) North part of Volgogradski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Ostrovnoi Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Pechoro-Ilychski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Pikhtovka fishponds site factsheet
Russia (European) Ponoiskaya depression site factsheet
Russia (European) Rakhinski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Rybinsk reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Samarskaya Luka site factsheet
Russia (European) Saraly site factsheet
Russia (European) Schuch'i Gori area site factsheet
Russia (European) Shcherbakovskaya bend of Volga river site factsheet
Russia (European) Siz'menski flood-plain of Sheksna reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Surski reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Suskanski Bay of Kuybyshev Resrvoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands site factsheet
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir site factsheet
Russia (European) Vicinity of the Vozhe lake and Charonda marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Vodlozero site factsheet
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers site factsheet
Russia (European) Western coast of Beloye lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Yugyd Va site factsheet
Russia (European) Zavidovo Nature Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish-ponds site factsheet
Russia (European) Zhigulevsk Nature Reserve site factsheet
Serbia Bosutska forest site factsheet
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje site factsheet
Serbia Koviljski rit site factsheet
Serbia Obedska bara site factsheet
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain site factsheet
Slovenia River Drava site factsheet
Slovenia River Mura site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kilsviken site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Svensksundsviken site factsheet
Sweden Björn archipelago site factsheet
Sweden Bråviken - Hävringe site factsheet
Sweden Coastal areas of eastern Öland island site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Gräsö archipelago site factsheet
Sweden Holmöarna archipelago site factsheet
Sweden Lake Åsnen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Hallbosjön site factsheet
Sweden Lake Solgen site factsheet
Sweden Muddus site factsheet
Sweden North-east Scania coastline and archipelago site factsheet
Sweden River Umeälven delta site factsheet
Sweden Sjaunja site factsheet
Sweden Strandstuguviken site factsheet
Sweden Western part of lake Mälaren site factsheet
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys site factsheet
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands) site factsheet
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays site factsheet
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Subarctic suitable breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus albicilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 13000-26000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,760,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species