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Pallas's Fish-eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,430,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,010,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 2500-9999 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.2 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number < c.10,000 mature individuals (by BirdLife International 2001) based on detailed analysis of available records, while the population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009). It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Trend justification: A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of loss, degradation and disturbance of wetland habitats and adjacent nesting trees throughout its range.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant Yes      
Bhutan Native Extant Yes      
Cambodia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Finland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Israel Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Myanmar Native Extant Yes      
Nepal Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Unknown Extant        
Russia (European) Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Vagrant Possibly Extinct        
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Ukraine Vagrant Extant        
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bangladesh Aila Beel site factsheet
Bangladesh Hail Haor site factsheet
Bangladesh Pablakhali Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Bangladesh Sunderbans (East, South, West Wildlife Sanctuaries) site factsheet
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel site factsheet
Bhutan Ada lake / Puna Tsangchu site factsheet
Bhutan Jigme Dorji National Park site factsheet
Bhutan Royal Manas National Park site factsheet
China (mainland) Aksu River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Aqqik Kol and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Ayark Kol and alpine grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Babso Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Baishui Jiang Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley site factsheet
China (mainland) Bogda (Tian Chi) site factsheet
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake site factsheet
China (mainland) Changshagongma Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Changtang plateau site factsheet
China (mainland) Desert and wetland from Northern Urumqi to Dabancheng site factsheet
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Eastern Qilian Shan mountains site factsheet
China (mainland) Heshui site factsheet
China (mainland) Hotan Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Huang He Shouqu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ili River basin site factsheet
China (mainland) Kasha Hu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Kunes forest site factsheet
China (mainland) Liupan Shan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu site factsheet
China (mainland) Lower reaches of Tarim River site factsheet
China (mainland) Markit-Yarkant Oasis site factsheet
China (mainland) Mori Grassland site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis and Desert in Hami site factsheet
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan site factsheet
China (mainland) Qinghai Hu (Koko Nor) site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Simian Shan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Tarim Euphrates Poplar Forest Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Têwo Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulugqat grassland and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai) site factsheet
China (mainland) Xayar forest and wetland site factsheet
China (mainland) Xiaohegou Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Xiaruyue Reservoir site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Zoigê (Ruo'ergai) Marshes site factsheet
India Asan Barrage site factsheet
India Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet
India Bhoj wetland site factsheet
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Chakrashila Complex site factsheet
India Chandubi Lake and adjoining areas site factsheet
India Corbett Tiger Reserve site factsheet
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex site factsheet
India Dudhwa National Park site factsheet
India Gorumara National Park site factsheet
India Haigam Rakh (marshes) site factsheet
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Hokarsar site factsheet
India Jaisamand Lake and Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Jamjing and Sengajan site factsheet
India Jengdia Beel and Satgaon site factsheet
India Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage site factsheet
India Kaziranga National Park site factsheet
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande site factsheet
India Khangchendzonga National Park and Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
India Kulik (Raiganj) Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary - Tsomgo - Tamze - Chola Complex site factsheet
India Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries site factsheet
India Magu Thingbu site factsheet
India Majuli site factsheet
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands site factsheet
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake) site factsheet
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Nameri National Park site factsheet
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE) site factsheet
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE) site factsheet
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex site factsheet
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Orang National Park site factsheet
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary - Zuluk - Bedang Tso - Natula Complex site factsheet
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Rajaji National Park site factsheet
India Samaspur Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park site factsheet
India Subansiri site factsheet
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park) site factsheet
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex site factsheet
India Tansa Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Udhuwa Lake Bird Sanctuary site factsheet
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary site factsheet
India Wular Lake and associated marshes site factsheet
Mongolia Achit Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Airag Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Airkhan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Buir Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Darkhad Depression site factsheet
Mongolia Jargalant Khairkhan Mountain site factsheet
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area site factsheet
Mongolia Khangain Nuruu National Park site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khar Us Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Khomiin Tal site factsheet
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Ogii Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Onon-Balj site factsheet
Mongolia Orog Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Santmargatsyn Bayan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Sharga Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Taatsiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Taigam Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Teshigiin Olon Lakes site factsheet
Mongolia Tolbo Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uureg Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvs Lake site factsheet
Mongolia Uvsiin Khar Lake site factsheet
Myanmar Indawgyi Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings site factsheet
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area site factsheet
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands site factsheet
Nepal Bardia National Park site factsheet
Nepal Chitwan National Park site factsheet
Nepal Farmlands in Lumbini area site factsheet
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage site factsheet
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve site factsheet
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands site factsheet
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge site factsheet
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site site factsheet
Pakistan Kirthar National Park (including Hub Dam) site factsheet
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park site factsheet
Pakistan Manchar Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes) site factsheet
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex site factsheet
Pakistan Pugri Lake site factsheet
Pakistan Rangla wetland complex site factsheet
Pakistan Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Pakistan Ucchali Wetland Complex site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Argun' river site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Ol'khon area site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Oruku-Shina site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes site factsheet
Tajikistan Dashtidjum site factsheet
Tajikistan Ishkashim site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kagan Fish Farm site factsheet
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5200 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Haliaeetus leucoryphus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Pallas, 1771)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9,430,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species