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Red Kite Milvus milvus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2bce+3bce+4bce 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2009 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,310,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,970,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -
Population justification: A review of available data in 2009 concluded the population numbers 21,000-25,500 pairs.
Trend justification: Although the Red Kite declined globally until the 1970s owing to persecution, many populations recovered or stabilised during 1970-1990 (Mionnet 2007) and its overall numbers were probably stable in Europe from 1970 to 1990 (Tucker & Heath 1994). Since 1990, declines documented within its core breeding areas - Spain (c. 4,000 mature individuals; Cardiel 2006), France (c. 4,700-6,000 mature individuals; Bretagnolle 2009) and Germany (c. 22,600 mature individuals; Mammen 2007) - have been partly offset by increases in countries like the UK, Sweden, Poland and Switzerland. Combining stable population trends between 1970 and 1990 with recent rapid declines in its core range, and increases in a few countries, yields an overall population decline over the past three generations (34.5 years) of 16%. This three generation rate of decline is likely to increase in the short term as numbers continue to fall in Iberia, but in the longer-term a reduction in the rate of decline, and even population increases are likely if current trends in the UK and Sweden are sustained. Therefore, a moderately rapid decline over three generations is retained for the present; this will be reviewed in the future.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Possibly Extinct        
Andorra Native Extant     Yes  
Armenia Vagrant Extant        
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Cape Verde Native Extinct        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Vagrant Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant     Yes Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Native Possibly Extinct        
Estonia Vagrant Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Vagrant Possibly Extinct        
Georgia Vagrant Extant        
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Native Possibly Extinct   Yes    
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Vagrant Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Vagrant Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Vagrant Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Nepal Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
San Marino Unknown Extant     Yes  
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sudan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sweden Native Extant     Yes Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Native Possibly Extinct        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes      
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest site factsheet
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel site factsheet
Belgium Sinémurienne site factsheet
Cape Verde Serra do Pico da Antónia site factsheet
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko site factsheet
France Bassigny site factsheet
France Etangs d'Argonne site factsheet
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine site factsheet
France Forêt de Chaux site factsheet
France Forêt de Haguenau site factsheet
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dordogne site factsheet
France Gorges de la Sioule site factsheet
France Gorges de la Truyère site factsheet
France Haut Val d'Allier site factsheet
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers site factsheet
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles site factsheet
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin. site factsheet
France Haute Soule : Massif Forestier, Gorges d'Holzarte et d'Olhadubi site factsheet
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux site factsheet
France Plaine du Forez site factsheet
France Plateau Ardennais site factsheet
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux site factsheet
France Sologne Bourbonnaise site factsheet
France Vallée de l'Aisne site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire site factsheet
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye site factsheet
France Vallée du Régino site factsheet
Italy Altopiano di Campeda site factsheet
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa site factsheet
Italy Madonie site factsheet
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains site factsheet
Italy Manferrara forest site factsheet
Italy Marchesato and River Neto site factsheet
Italy Matese site factsheet
Italy Mount Cervati site factsheet
Italy Nebrodi site factsheet
Italy Picentini mountains site factsheet
Italy River Biferno site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Our site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach site factsheet
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Barlinek Forest site factsheet
Poland Barycz river valley site factsheet
Poland Cedynia Site site factsheet
Poland Drawa River Site site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Goleniow Forest site factsheet
Poland Insko Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Odra river valley site factsheet
Poland Lower Silesia Forests site factsheet
Poland Middle Odra River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest site factsheet
Poland Notec Forest site factsheet
Poland Szczecin lagoon site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Poland Witnica-Debno Site site factsheet
Poland Wkrzanska Forest site factsheet
Portugal Arraiolos site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Côa valley site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Portugal Vila Fernando site factsheet
Russia (European) Nemanski forest site factsheet
Slovakia Laborecka upland site factsheet
Slovakia Morava site factsheet
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle site factsheet
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Guara mountain range site factsheet
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire site factsheet
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros site factsheet
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca site factsheet
Spain River Cega-Tierra de Pinares-Cantalejo site factsheet
Spain River Moros site factsheet
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag site factsheet
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes site factsheet
Spain Tramuntana mountains site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Skälderviken site factsheet
Sweden Kullaberg site factsheet
Sweden North-east Scania coastline and archipelago site factsheet
Switzerland 'Grosses Moos' plain and Niederried reservoir site factsheet
Switzerland Jura mountains of Baselland - Solothurn site factsheet
Switzerland La Brévine and Les Ponts-de-Martel site factsheet
Switzerland Lowlands of Zurich and lower valley of the river Thur site factsheet
United Kingdom Elenydd - Mallaen site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2500 m

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Milvus milvus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,310,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species