This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over 10 years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in 10 years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Pernis ptilorynchus Christidis and Boles (2008), Pernis ptilorynchus ptilorynchus Christidis and Boles (2008)
Behaviour Birds in the northern part of its range are migratory, arriving at breeding grounds in April and May and leaving again between August and October. Further south the species is sedentary (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It migrates by flapping as well as soaring, enabling it to cross expanses of water. Small groups generally form on migration, but otherwise the species is generally seen singly or in pairs (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Habitat It inhabits woodland of various climatic types, preferring broad-leaved forests; it is recorded up to 1,800 m (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet Bees and wasps (usually larvae) form the main part of its diet (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site The nest is built in the fork of a tree (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information The species requires forest, although not necessarily old growth: it has been recorded to move back into irrigated forest plantations in Pakistan (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
It is very highly vulnerable to the effects of potential wind energy development (Strix 2012).
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
Strix. 2012. Developing and testing the methodology for assessing and mapping the sensitivity of migratory birds to wind energy development. BirdLife International, Cambridge.
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pernis ptilorhyncus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/03/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 08/03/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Family||Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)|
|Species name author||(Temminck, 1821)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||12,000,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|