This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Behaviour This widely distributed afrotropical species is largely permanently resident, but a proportion will make some seasonal movements. During April-November some individuals migrate northwards to East Africa, particularly coastal Kenya (del Hoyo et al., 1994) and during the non-breeding season (May-August) some will migrate down into Southern Africa (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001), particularly the Transvaal highveld (del Hoyo et al., 1994). The species is also occasionally found in south-east Ethiopia (Brown et al., 1982). The breeding season varies by locality; in southern Africa it occurs during September-March; in West Africa it is during June-August; in Kenya it is during both March-June and November -February, following the onset of the rains (Brown, et al., 1982; del Hoyo et al., 1994; Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Its general behaviour is largely unknown, probably as a result of its low local densities and secretive habits (Brown et al., 1982). However, during migration individuals become slightly more conspicuous and thus may appear more numerous (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Habitat This reticent species occupies the interior and edges of evergreen forest and deciduous woodlands, including suburban gardens and more open savannas, up to 3000m (Brown, et al., 1982; del Hoyo et al., 1994; Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). During migration through East Africa it also occupies drier woodland and bush (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Diet The species feeds mainly on insects, reptiles and small birds (Brown et al., 1982). It mostly still-hunts from a perch, although it is known to hawk for flying insects and to actively search for prey (Ferguson-Lees and Christie, 2001). Breeding Site Constructs small slight nests high in trees, including eucalyptus (Brown et al., 1982; Ferguson- Lees and Christie, 2001). Management Information The species utilises interior forest, but is also observed in secondary growth and open edge habitats. It is affected by the loss of forest habitat and is predated by larger raptors. There are no records of it being affected by pesticides (del Hoyo et al., 1994).
It is affected by the loss of forest habitat and can be predated by larger raptors (del Hoyo et al., 1994). In South Africa it has been known to drown in small reservoirs on farmland (Anderson et al. 1999).
Anderson, M. D.; Maritz, A. W. A.; Oosthuysen, E. 1999. Raptors drowning in farm reservoirs in South Africa. Ostrich 70(2): 139-144.
Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Ferguson-Lees, J. and Christie, D.A. 2001. Raptors of the world. Christopher Helm, London.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M. & Ashpole, J
IUCN Red List evaluators
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Aviceda cuculoides. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/08/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/08/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Family||Accipitridae (Hawks, Eagles)|
|Species name author||Swainson, 1837|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||10,600,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- Projected distributions under climate change