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LC
Osprey Pandion haliaetus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.6 - - -
Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (1,100% increase over 40 years, equating to a 84.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant   Yes  
Algeria Native Extant      
Angola Native Extant      
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Argentina Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes   Yes
Belgium Native Extant     Yes
Belize Native Extant      
Benin Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Bolivia Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Botswana Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Colombia Native Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant     Yes
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes  
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
French Guiana Native Extant      
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Grenada Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant   Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Guyana Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant Yes    
Indonesia Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes
Jamaica Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Lesotho Native Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes
Monaco Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes  
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant Yes    
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Panama Native Extant      
Papua New Guinea Native Extant Yes    
Paraguay Native Extant      
Peru Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes   Yes
Portugal Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Rwanda Native Extant      
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant     Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes  
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
Solomon Islands Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Native Extant   Yes  
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Suriname Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant      
Togo Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes    
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant      
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant      
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant     Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Janka river floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Kaz'jany site factsheet
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Cuba Siboney - Juticí site factsheet
Estonia Karula site factsheet
Estonia Misso site factsheet
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island site factsheet
Estonia Puhatu mire site factsheet
Estonia Rubina site factsheet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju site factsheet
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Col de Lizarrieta site factsheet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides site factsheet
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris site factsheet
France Pointe de Grave site factsheet
Guyana Shell Beach site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Moricsala and Viskuzu sala site factsheet
Latvia Razna site factsheet
Latvia Satini fish-ponds site factsheet
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Luxembourg Haff Réimech site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure site factsheet
Poland Borecka forest site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Goleniow Forest site factsheet
Poland Ilawa Forest site factsheet
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest site factsheet
Poland Notec Forest site factsheet
Poland Pisz forest site factsheet
Poland Wkrzanska Forest site factsheet
Portugal Albufeira do Caia site factsheet
Portugal Mondego Estuary site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Slovenia Črete site factsheet
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Cape Pinar site factsheet
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa site factsheet
Spain Famara crag site factsheet
Spain Lanzarote islets site factsheet
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff site factsheet
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón site factsheet
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire site factsheet
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera site factsheet
Spain Tramuntana mountains site factsheet
Spain Western coast of El Hierro site factsheet
Sweden Båtfors-Bredfors site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kilsviken site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Florarna site factsheet
Sweden Lake Åsnen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Limsjön site factsheet
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden site factsheet
Sweden River Dalälven-Håvran site factsheet
Sweden Western part of lake Mälaren site factsheet
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Cairngorms site factsheet
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie site factsheet
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4100 m

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pandion haliaetus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Accipitridae (Osprey, kites, hawks and eagles)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 500000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 31,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions