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LC
Osprey Pandion haliaetus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 31,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.6 - - -
Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (1,100% increase over 40 years, equating to a 84.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant   Yes    
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant        
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Belgium Native Extant     Yes  
Belize Native Extant        
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bolivia Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Botswana Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Colombia Native Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant     Yes  
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant     Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant   Yes    
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
French Guiana Native Extant        
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant     Yes  
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Grenada Native Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant     Yes  
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes  
Ireland Native Extant        
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Jamaica Native Extant        
Japan Native Extant Yes      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant        
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes  
Lesotho Native Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant     Yes  
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Vagrant Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Monaco Native Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes  
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Oman Native Extant     Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Panama Native Extant        
Papua New Guinea Native Extant Yes      
Paraguay Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Native Extant        
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant     Yes  
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant   Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
Solomon Islands Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Native Extant   Yes    
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant     Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Switzerland Native Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes  
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant       Yes
Togo Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes      
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant        
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant        
Venezuela Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant     Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik site factsheet
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Janka river floodplain site factsheet
Belarus Kaz'jany site factsheet
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Cuba Siboney - Juticí site factsheet
Estonia Karula site factsheet
Estonia Misso site factsheet
Estonia Mouth of the Emajõgi river and Piirissaar island site factsheet
Estonia Puhatu mire site factsheet
Estonia Rubina site factsheet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju site factsheet
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago site factsheet
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin site factsheet
France Col de Lizarrieta site factsheet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides site factsheet
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris site factsheet
France Pointe de Grave site factsheet
Guyana Shell Beach site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Latvia Moricsala and Viskuzu sala site factsheet
Latvia Razna site factsheet
Latvia Satini fish-ponds site factsheet
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Luxembourg Haff Réimech site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure site factsheet
Norway Aukerfjella site factsheet
Norway Lake Vansjø site factsheet
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset site factsheet
Norway Setesdal valley (southern part) site factsheet
Poland Borecka forest site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Goleniow Forest site factsheet
Poland Ilawa Forest site factsheet
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest site factsheet
Poland Notec Forest site factsheet
Poland Pisz forest site factsheet
Poland Wkrzanska Forest site factsheet
Portugal Albufeira do Caia site factsheet
Portugal Mondego Estuary site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Braţul Borcea site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Odyan bay site factsheet
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Slovenia Črete site factsheet
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera site factsheet
Spain Cape Pinar site factsheet
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa site factsheet
Spain Famara crag site factsheet
Spain Lanzarote islets site factsheet
Spain Los Gigantes coastal cliff site factsheet
Spain Naos Bay-Hoya de Tacorón site factsheet
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire site factsheet
Spain South-west coast of La Gomera site factsheet
Spain Tramuntana mountains site factsheet
Spain Western coast of El Hierro site factsheet
Sweden Båtfors-Bredfors site factsheet
Sweden Bay of Kilsviken site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Florarna site factsheet
Sweden Holmöarna archipelago site factsheet
Sweden Lake Åsnen site factsheet
Sweden Lake Limsjön site factsheet
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden site factsheet
Sweden River Dalälven-Håvran site factsheet
Sweden Western part of lake Mälaren site factsheet
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Cairngorms site factsheet
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie site factsheet
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4100 m

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Historical

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pandion haliaetus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Pandionidae (Osprey)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 500000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 31,500,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change