This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).
Barrett, R.T., Anker-Nilsson, T., Rikardsen, F., Valde, K., Røv, N. and Vader, W. 1987. The food, growth and fledging success of Norwegian puffin chicks Fratercula arcitica in 1980-1983. Ornis Scandinavica 18: 73-83.
Burger, A.E. and Simpson, M. 1986. Diving depths of Atlantic puffins and common murres. Auk 103: 828-830.
Corkhill, P. 1973. Food and feeding ecology of puffins. Bird Study 20(3): 207-220.
Creelman, E. and Storey, A.E. 1991. Sex-differences in reproductive-behavior of Atlantic puffins. Condor 93(2): 390-398.
Harris, M.P. 1984. A. & C. Black Publishers Ltd, London, UK.
Harris, M.P. and Hislop, J.R.G. 1978. The food of young puffins. Journal of Zoology 185: 213-236.
Harris, M.P. and Riddiford, N.J. 1989. The food of some young seabirds on Fair Isle in 1986-88. Scottish Birds 15: 119-125.
Harris, M.P. and Wanless, S. 1986. The food of young razorbills on the Isle of May and a comparison with that of young guillemots and puffins. Ornis Scandinavica 17: 41-46.
Hislop, J.R.G. and Harris, M.P. 1985. Recent changes in the food of young puffins (Fratercula arctica) on the Isle of May in relation to fish stocks. Ibis 127: 234-239.
Martin, A.R. 1989. The diet of Atlantic puffin Fratercula arctica and northern gannet Sula bassana chicks at a Shetland colony during a period of changing prey availability. Bird Study 36(3): 170-180.
Pearson, T.H. 1968. The feeding ecology of sea-bird species breeding on the Farne Islands, Northumberland. Journal of Animal Ecology 37: 521-552.
Piatt, J.F., Nettleship, D.N. 1985. Diving depths of four alcids. The Auk 102: 293-297.
Rodway, M.S., Montevecchi, W. A. 1996. Sampling methods for assessing the diets of Atlantic puffin chicks . Marine Ecology Progress Series 144(1-3): 41-55.
Stone, C.J., Harrison, N.M., Webb, A. & Best, B.J. Seabird distribution around Skomer and Skokholm Islands, June 1990. 1992. Seabird distribution around Skomer and Skokholm Islands, June 1990.
Stone, C.J., Webb, A., Barton, T.R. & Gordon, J.R.W. 1993. Seabird distribution around Skomer and Skokholm Islands, June 1992.
Wanless, S., Harris, M.P. and Morris, J.A. 1990. A comparison of feeding areas used by individual common murres (Uria aalge) razorbills (Alca torda) and an Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica) during the breeding season. Colonial Waterbirds 13: 16-24.
Webb, A., Tasker, M.L. and Greenstreet, S.P.R. 1985. The distribution of guillemots (Uria aalge), razorbills (Alca torda) and puffins (Fratercula arctica) at sea around Flamborough Head, June 1984.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Fratercula arctica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||1,620,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|