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Parakeet Auklet Aethia psittacula

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Synonym(s)
Cyclorrhynchus psittacula Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Cyclorrhynchus psittacula Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994), Cyclorrhynchus psittacula psittacula Cramp and Simmons (1977-1994), Cyclorrhynchus psittacula psittacula Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Distribution and population
The Parakeet Auklet is found in the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaido, Japan and far off the coast of California (USA) in the south, up to and including the southern part of the Chukchi Sea. It breeds on islands throughout this area, as well as on the coast of Alaska (USA) and the eastern coast of Siberia, Russia1.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number > c.1,200,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and unsustainable levels of hunting.

Ecology
This marine species occurs offshore and along rocky sea coasts. Its diet is comprised mainly of planktonic crustaceans, specifically euphausiids and amphipods early and calanoid copepods during chick-rearing, and it is supplemented with varying amounts of other invertebrates and small fish. Food is usually obtained at considerable distance from colonies. Spring arrival and the start of laying is variable depending on latitude, starting earliest in the south of its range and latest in the extreme north. It is monogamous with high site fidelity and presumably high mate fidelity between years. Colonies are loose and range from small to large, breeding on offshore islands using dark crevices and cavities in steep sea cliffs, rocky talus slopes and beach boulder fields as nesting sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Kitaysky, A. S.; Golubova, E. G. 2000. Climate change causes contrasting trends in reproductive performance of planktivorous and piscivorous alcids. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 248-262.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Aethia psittacula. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alcidae (Auks)
Species name author (Pallas, 1769)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 378,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species