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VU
Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde;C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type shelf island
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 110 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,080,000 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 110 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 2500-9999 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.1 - - -
Population justification: The global population is roughly estimated to be in the band c.2,500-9,999 mature individuals (Ono 1996 and BirdLife International 2001), equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. National population sizes have been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Korea and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Populations are thought to be declining rapidly through the combined impact of predation by introduced rats, disturbance of breeding sites and adult mortality in fishing nets.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant Yes    
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Japan Birojima islet site factsheet
Japan Danjo islands site factsheet
Japan Eboshijima islet site factsheet
Japan Hachijojima island site factsheet
Japan Kanmurijima and Kutsujima islets site factsheet
Japan Kii Nagashima islets site factsheet
Japan Kozushima island site factsheet
Japan Mikurajima island site factsheet
Japan Miyakejima island site factsheet
Japan Nanatsujima islets site factsheet
Japan Niijima and Shikinejima Islands site factsheet
Japan Okinoshima islets site factsheet
Japan Seinan islands site factsheet
Japan Torishima island site factsheet
Japan Tsukuejima islets site factsheet
South Korea Chilbal-do island site factsheet
South Korea Kukul-do island site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Synthliboramphus wumizusume. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Alcidae (Auks)
Species name author (Temminck, 1835)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 110 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species