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Spectacled Guillemot Cepphus carbo

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
The Spectacled Guillemot is found on coasts and islands of the north-west Pacific, breeding from the Kamchatkan Peninsula, Russia and Sea of Okhotsk to the north-east North Korea, including the Kuril Islands, and Hokkaido, Japan, wintering near breeding locations and beyond the southern tip of Japan (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.140,000-148,000 individuals (del Hoyo et al. 1996), while national population sizes have been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to predation by invasive species and food shortages caused by the depletion of fisheries (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Ecology
This exclusively marine species is found near-shore whilst breeding and over both pelagic waters and along coasts during the winter. It feeds largely on fish with a few invertebrates, usually catching prey close to breeding colonies. Its breeding season probably begins between April and May, nesting either as a single pair, in groups of 10-20 pairs and rarely in colonies of 200-300 pairs. It lays in cliff crevices, in holes and cavities in scree slopes and boulder fields or in more accessible sites on predator-free islands. Individuals are resident and mostly sedentary, remaining in the vicinity of the colonies except in the north of its range (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cepphus carbo. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alcidae (Auks)
Species name author Pallas, 1811
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,740,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species