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Brown Noddy Anous stolidus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 189 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 26,800
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.180,000-1,100,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population sizes have been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: Although Wetlands International consider the population trend to be unknown, the population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
American Samoa Unknown Extant      
Angola Unknown Extant      
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant Yes    
Bahamas Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belize Native Extant      
Benin Unknown Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant Yes    
Brunei Native Extant      
Cambodia Unknown Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant Yes    
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Native Extant Yes    
Colombia Native Extant      
Comoros Native Extant      
Congo Unknown Extant      
Cook Islands Native Extant Yes    
Costa Rica Native Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Unknown Extant      
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Fiji Native Extant      
French Guiana Native Extant      
French Polynesia Native Extant Yes    
French Southern Territories Unknown Extant      
Gabon Unknown Extant      
Gambia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Ghana Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Grenada Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant      
Guam (to USA) Native Extant Yes    
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guyana Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Jamaica Native Extant Yes    
Japan Native Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kiribati Native Extant Yes    
Liberia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Native Extant Yes    
Marshall Islands Native Extant Yes    
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mauritius Native Extant Yes    
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant Yes    
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Mozambique Unknown Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nauru Native Extant      
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant Yes    
New Zealand Native Extant Yes    
Nicaragua Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Niue (to New Zealand) Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Norfolk Island (to Australia) Native Extant Yes    
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant Yes    
Oman Native Extant Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant Yes    
Panama Native Extant      
Papua New Guinea Unknown Extant      
Peru Unknown Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Réunion (to France) Native Extant      
Samoa Unknown Extant      
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant Yes    
Seychelles Native Extant Yes    
Sierra Leone Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Singapore Unknown Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Solomon Islands Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant Yes    
South Africa Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Helena (to UK) Native Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Native Extant      
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant Yes    
Suriname Native Extant      
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant Yes    
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant      
Togo Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Native Extant Yes    
Tonga Native Extant Yes    
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Tuvalu Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes  
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes    
Vanuatu Native Extant Yes    
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant Yes    
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Native Extant Yes    
Yemen Native Extant Yes   Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero site factsheet
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands site factsheet
Australia Raine Island, Moulter and Maclennan Cays site factsheet
Bahamas Conception Island site factsheet
Bahamas Goulding Cay Wild Bird Reserve site factsheet
Bahamas Graham's Harbour site factsheet
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays site factsheet
Brazil Atol das Rocas site factsheet
British Indian Ocean Territory Danger Island, Chagos Bank site factsheet
British Indian Ocean Territory Nelson, Chagos Bank site factsheet
British Indian Ocean Territory Sea Cow, Chagos Bank site factsheet
British Indian Ocean Territory South Brother, Chagos Bank site factsheet
Chile Isla Rapa Nui site factsheet
Chile Isla Sala y Gómez site factsheet
Chile Islas Desventuradas site factsheet
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) North Keeling Island site factsheet
Dominica Point Des Foux site factsheet
Dominican Republic Siete Hermanos Keys site factsheet
French Polynesia Anuanuraro site factsheet
Guadeloupe (to France) Falaises Nord et Îlet de Vieux-Fort de Marie-Galante site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Gunung Api site factsheet
Indonesia Pulau Manuk site factsheet
Jamaica Morant Cays and Bank site factsheet
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank site factsheet
Jamaica Portland Ridge and Bight site factsheet
Martinique (to France) Îlets et falaises de Sainte Anne site factsheet
Martinique (to France) Rocher du Diamant site factsheet
Mauritius Cargados Carajos shoals (Saint Brandon) site factsheet
Mauritius Serpent Island site factsheet
Puerto Rico (to USA) Culebra site factsheet
São Tomé e Príncipe Tinhosas islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Seychelles African Banks site factsheet
Seychelles Aride island site factsheet
Seychelles Bird Island site factsheet
Seychelles Marie Louise island site factsheet
Somalia Jasiira Maydh site factsheet
St Martin (to France) Tintamarre site factsheet
Tanzania Latham Island site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Caicos Bank Southern Cays site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Turks Bank Seabird Cays site factsheet
USA Northwestern Hawaiian Islands site factsheet
Venezuela Wildlife Refuge Bird Island - Marine site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 50 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Anous stolidus. Downloaded from on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 26,800 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions