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White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

Population justification
The global population is estimated to number c.2,500,000-4,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification
The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Ecology
Behaviour This species is strongly migratory (del Hoyo et al. 1996). It breeds from April to August in small colonies of between 3 and 100 pairs (mostly 20-40 pairs) that may contain other species (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Throughout the year the species feeds in flocks (Snow and Perrins 1998) and migrates and overwinters in large flocks (del Hoyo et al. 1996) of up to tens of thousands of individuals (Snow and Perrins 1998). Habitat Breeding The species breeds inland on freshwater lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998), swampy standing water, rivers (Snow and Perrins 1998) and shallow naturally flooded grassland (Richards 1990, Snow and Perrins 1998) with areas of open water bordered by stands of reeds, sedge and other aquatic vegetation (Snow and Perrins 1998). It generally avoids fish-ponds, rice-fields and ornamental waters (Richards 1990) but may feed over wet fields, dry farmland and steppe grassland (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Non-breeding On passage and in winter the species frequents a variety of habitats from inland lakes to rocky coasts (del Hoyo et al. 1996), including rivers, flood-plains, lakes (Snow and Perrins 1998), impoundments, lagoons and mangrove swamps, also feeding over wet fields, dry farmland and steppe grassland (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Diet It diet consists predominantly of aquatic insects (especially Diptera, Odonata and Coleoptera) as well as adult and larval terrestrial insects, small fish and tadpoles (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Breeding site The nest is a shallow cup in a mound of aquatic vegetation usually placed over water 30-120 cm deep on floating mats of vegetation, or on dry shores or resting on the bottom in shallow water (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species nests in single- or mixed-species colonies, neighbouring nests usually widely spaced (i.e. 10-30 m apart) but may be as close as 2.5 m (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Threats
The species is susceptible to avian influenza so may be threatened by future outbreaks of the virus (Melville and Shortridge 2006).

References
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Melville, D. S.; Shortridge, K. F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C., Stroud, D. (ed.), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 432-438. The Stationary Office, Edinburgh, UK.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Snow, D. W.; Perrins, C. M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic vol. 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Malpas, L.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chlidonias leucopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-winged tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author (Temminck, 1815)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species