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LC
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.300,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is fluctuating, although some populations are stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes
Albania Native Extant      
Algeria Native Extant      
Angola Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Australia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Vagrant Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Botswana Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes    
Burkina Faso Vagrant Extant      
Burundi Vagrant Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Vagrant Extant      
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant      
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes    
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Vagrant Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant     Yes
Gambia Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant      
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant     Yes
Italy Native Extant     Yes
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant Yes   Yes
Lesotho Vagrant Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes  
Maldives Vagrant Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Vagrant Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
New Zealand Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Papua New Guinea Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant Yes    
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes
Rwanda Vagrant Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant     Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant   Yes  
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes  
Togo Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
USA Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Fortescue Marshes site factsheet
Australia Mandora Marsh and Anna Plains site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Botswana Lake Ngami site factsheet
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh site factsheet
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Srebarna site factsheet
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh site factsheet
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds site factsheet
Cambodia Bassac Marsh site factsheet
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru site factsheet
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds site factsheet
Croatia Jelas field including fishponds and wet pastures along Sava RIver site factsheet
Croatia Lower Sava river site factsheet
Egypt Lake Burullus site factsheet
Egypt Lake Manzala site factsheet
France Brenne centrale site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Etang de Capestang site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan site factsheet
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan site factsheet
France Etangs Montpellierains site factsheet
France Etangs Narbonnais site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Marais de Brière site factsheet
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre site factsheet
France Plaine du Forez site factsheet
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site site factsheet
Greece Agra artificial lake site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Lake Chimaditis and Lake Zazaris site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz site factsheet
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség site factsheet
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton site factsheet
India Kole Wetland site factsheet
India Sulekere Lake site factsheet
India Vembanad Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Kenya Tana River Delta site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex site factsheet
Madagascar Mangoky - Ankazoabo Forest SAPM site factsheet
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Brzeszcze ponds site factsheet
Poland Druzno lake site factsheet
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir site factsheet
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nielisz Site site factsheet
Poland Polesie site factsheet
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir site factsheet
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Portugal Cabrela site factsheet
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood site factsheet
Romania Comana site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Ilfov reservoir site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Brateş site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Dunăreni site factsheet
Romania Lake Gălăţui site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Maglavit site factsheet
Romania Măxineni site factsheet
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river site factsheet
Serbia Jegricka site factsheet
Serbia Mala vrbica site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
Slovakia Medzibodrozie site factsheet
Slovakia Senné site factsheet
South Africa Mkuzi Game Reserve site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes site factsheet
Spain Almenara marshes site factsheet
Spain Ampurdán marshes site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain El Hondo wetland site factsheet
Spain El Moro marshes site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans site factsheet
Tanzania Eluanata dam site factsheet
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir site factsheet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand site factsheet
Turkey Batmış Lake (Cil Lake) site factsheet
Turkey Çavuşçu Lake site factsheet
Turkey Işıklı Lake site factsheet
Turkey Karamık Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Lake site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sultan Marsh site factsheet
Turkey Terkos Basin site factsheet
Turkey Uluabat Lake site factsheet
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village site factsheet
Ukraine Ikva river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows site factsheet
Ukraine Kryva peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes site factsheet
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Snyvoda river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Udaj river valley site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chlidonias hybrida. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author (Pallas, 1811)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions