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LC
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.300,000-1,500,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2006), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The overall population trend is fluctuating, although some populations are stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant     Yes  
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Australia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant     Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Vagrant Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Brunei Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes      
Burkina Faso Vagrant Extant        
Burundi Vagrant Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Vagrant Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Vagrant Extant        
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant        
Eritrea Vagrant Extant        
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Native Extant        
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant     Yes  
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Vagrant Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Maldives Vagrant Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Vagrant Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes    
Moldova Native Extant        
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant     Yes Yes
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
New Zealand Vagrant Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palau Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Rwanda Vagrant Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant     Yes Yes
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Native Extant        
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant   Yes    
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes    
Togo Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Australia Alligator Rivers Floodplains site factsheet
Australia Fortescue Marshes site factsheet
Australia Mandora Marsh and Anna Plains site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala site factsheet
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu site factsheet
Botswana Lake Ngami site factsheet
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Kalimok Complex site factsheet
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh site factsheet
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds site factsheet
Bulgaria Srebarna site factsheet
Bulgaria Tsibarsko Marsh site factsheet
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds site factsheet
Cambodia Bassac Marsh site factsheet
Cambodia Chhnuk Tru site factsheet
Croatia Danube and Drava rivers' lowland areas site factsheet
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds site factsheet
Croatia Jelas field including fishponds and wet pastures along Sava RIver site factsheet
Croatia Lower Sava river site factsheet
Croatia Poilovlje with Koncanica, Garesnica and Poljana fishponds site factsheet
Egypt Lake Burullus site factsheet
Egypt Lake Manzala site factsheet
France Brenne centrale site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Etang de Capestang site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: étang de l'Arche site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan site factsheet
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan site factsheet
France Etangs Montpellierains site factsheet
France Etangs Narbonnais site factsheet
France La Dombes site factsheet
France Marais de Brière site factsheet
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre site factsheet
France Plaine du Forez site factsheet
Ghana Keta Lagoon Ramsar Site site factsheet
Greece Agra artificial lake site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Lake Chimaditis and Lake Zazaris site factsheet
Greece Lake Kerkini site factsheet
Greece Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz site factsheet
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség site factsheet
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton site factsheet
India Kole Wetland site factsheet
India Sulekere Lake site factsheet
India Vembanad Lake site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bibishervan and Lake Eymar site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lapoo - Zargmarz ab-bandans site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa site factsheet
Iraq Haur Al Hammar site factsheet
Israel Carmel coast site factsheet
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona site factsheet
Italy Valli di Argenta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay site factsheet
Kenya Tana River Delta site factsheet
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Madagascar Bemamba Wetland Complex site factsheet
Madagascar Lake Ihotry Hunting Reserve - Mangoky Delta complex site factsheet
Malaysia Pulau Bruit National Park site factsheet
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo site factsheet
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Brzeszcze ponds site factsheet
Poland Druzno lake site factsheet
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir site factsheet
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Nielisz Site site factsheet
Poland Polesie site factsheet
Poland Siemianowka Reseirvoir site factsheet
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley site factsheet
Poland Warta River Mouth site factsheet
Portugal Cabrela site factsheet
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre site factsheet
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood site factsheet
Romania Comana site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Ilfov reservoir site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Brateş site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Dunăreni site factsheet
Romania Lake Gălăţui site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Maglavit site factsheet
Romania Măxineni site factsheet
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the Kuban' river site factsheet
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don site factsheet
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay site factsheet
Russia (European) Mouth of Yeya river site factsheet
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje site factsheet
Serbia Jegricka site factsheet
Serbia Mala Vrbica site factsheet
Serbia Srednje Potamišje site factsheet
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain site factsheet
Slovakia Medzibodrozie site factsheet
Slovakia Senné site factsheet
South Africa Mkuzi Game Reserve site factsheet
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes site factsheet
Spain Almenara marshes site factsheet
Spain Ampurdán marshes site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain El Hondo wetland site factsheet
Spain El Moro marshes site factsheet
Spain Gallocanta lake site factsheet
Spain Guadalquivir marshes site factsheet
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon site factsheet
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons site factsheet
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano site factsheet
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans site factsheet
Tanzania Eluanata dam site factsheet
Tanzania Nyumba ya Mungu reservoir site factsheet
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand site factsheet
Turkey Batmış Lake (Cil Lake) site factsheet
Turkey Çavuşçu Lake site factsheet
Turkey Işıklı Lake site factsheet
Turkey Karamık Marshes site factsheet
Turkey Kozanlı Gökgöl site factsheet
Turkey Marmara Lake site factsheet
Turkey Meriç Delta site factsheet
Turkey Sultan Marsh site factsheet
Turkey Terkos Basin site factsheet
Turkey Uluabat Lake site factsheet
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village site factsheet
Ukraine Ikva river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows site factsheet
Ukraine Kryva peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes site factsheet
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir site factsheet
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Snyvoda river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Udaj river valley site factsheet
Zambia Barotse Floodplains site factsheet
Zambia Kafue Flats site factsheet
Zambia Liuwa Plain National Park site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chlidonias hybrida. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author (Pallas, 1811)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change