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Saunders's Tern Sterna saundersi

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 236,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 715,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -
Trend justification: Although Wetlands International consider the population to be increasing, the population is suspected to be in decline owing to disturbance and predation at breeding sites (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahrain Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Egypt Unknown Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant      
Iraq Unknown Extant      
Israel Vagrant Extant      
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Madagascar Native Extant      
Maldives Native Extant      
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant      
Seychelles Native Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant Yes Yes  
Tanzania Native Extant      
United Arab Emirates Native Extant Yes   Yes
Yemen Native Extant     Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bahrain Hawar Islands site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bushire Bay site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Faror islands site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormoz island site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nakhilu, Morghu and Ummal Karam islands site factsheet
Kenya Mida Creek, Whale Island and the Malindi - Watamu coast site factsheet
Kenya Sabaki River Mouth site factsheet
Kenya Tana River Delta site factsheet
Madagascar Ambavanankarana wetlands site factsheet
Oman Barr al Hikman site factsheet
Oman Khor Dirif site factsheet
Oman Masirah island site factsheet
Oman Ras al Hadd site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Gulf coral islands site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah site factsheet
Tanzania Dar es Salaam coast site factsheet
Tanzania Rufiji Delta site factsheet
Tanzania Zanzibar Island-East Coast site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Abu al Abyadh island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Islands off Sir Bani Yas island site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons site factsheet
United Arab Emirates Yasat islands site factsheet
Yemen Al-'Urj site factsheet
Yemen Al-Mukha - Al-Khawkhah site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sterna saundersi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author Hume, 1877
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 236,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions