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Black-naped Tern Sterna sumatrana

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 106 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,250,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 38,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals Unknown not applicable Not Applicable 0
Population trend Unknown -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -
Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified, though national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the extent of threats to the species (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
American Samoa Native Extant       Yes
Australia Native Extant Yes      
Bangladesh Vagrant Extant        
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant Yes      
Brunei Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Extant        
Christmas Island (to Australia) Unknown Extant        
Comoros Native Extant        
Cook Islands Native Extant        
Fiji Native Extant       Yes
French Southern Territories Unknown Extant        
Guam (to USA) Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant        
Indonesia Native Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Kenya Unknown Extant        
Kiribati Native Extant       Yes
Madagascar Vagrant Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Native Extant        
Marshall Islands Native Extant Yes      
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant        
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant       Yes
Mozambique Unknown Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Nauru Unknown Extant        
New Caledonia (to France) Native Extant        
Niue (to New Zealand) Unknown Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Palau Native Extant       Yes
Papua New Guinea Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Samoa Native Extant       Yes
Seychelles Native Extant Yes      
Singapore Native Extant        
Solomon Islands Native Extant        
Somalia Unknown Extant        
Sri Lanka Vagrant Extant        
Taiwan (China) Native Extant Yes      
Tanzania Unknown Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Timor-Leste Native Extant       Yes
Tokelau (to New Zealand) Unknown Extant        
Tonga Native Extant       Yes
Tuvalu Native Extant       Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Unknown Extant        
Vanuatu Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Beiji Islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongtou Islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanji Islands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Taizhou Islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Wuchishan Dao Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yushan Islands site factsheet
China (mainland) Zhongjieshan Islands site factsheet
Japan Okinawa coastal islets site factsheet
Japan Yaeyama islands site factsheet
Malaysia Talang-Satang National Park site factsheet
Seychelles African Banks site factsheet
Seychelles Aldabra atoll site factsheet
Seychelles Cosmoledo atoll site factsheet
Seychelles Islets of Farquhar atoll site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Northeastern Sea Islets site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic marginal resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sterna sumatrana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Raffles, 1822
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,250,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species