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CR
Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii); D 
Endangered B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1 
Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Critically Endangered
2012 Critically Endangered
2010 Critically Endangered
2009 Critically Endangered
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass 284 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 30-49 poor Estimated 2013
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1-49 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -
Population justification: The number of breeding adults varies each year, ranging from 12 in 2012 to 26 in 2004. Given this the total number of mature individuals is likely to number fewer than 50, and perhaps most likely 30-49 (S. Chan in litt. 2013).
Trend justification: Repeat surveys at the two known breeding sites since 2003 have shown an overall decrease in the number of breeding pairs.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Native Extant   Yes    
Malaysia Native Extant   Yes    
Philippines Native Extant   Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiushan Islands Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary site factsheet
Malaysia Bako-Buntal Bay site factsheet
Philippines Manila Bay site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Matsu (Mazu) Islands Tern Refuge site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats major resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Thalasseus bernsteini. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Schlegel, 1863
Population size 30-49 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species