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Great Tit Parus major

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 32,600,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.3 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 46,000,000-91,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 138,000,000-273,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 282,000,000-1,090,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia and (for the subspecies minor) c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia and (for the subspecies cinereus) c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is estimated to be increasing following recorded range expansions (del Hoyo et al. 2007), although in Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant       Yes
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Native Extant       Yes
Andorra Native Extant       Yes
Armenia Native Extant       Yes
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bhutan Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Cambodia Native Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant       Yes
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant       Yes
Egypt Native Extant       Yes
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Finland Native Extant       Yes
France Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant       Yes
Germany Native Extant       Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant       Yes
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iceland Vagrant Extant       Yes
Indonesia Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant       Yes
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Japan Native Extant       Yes
Jordan Native Extant       Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant       Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant       Yes
Laos Native Extant       Yes
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant       Yes
Liechtenstein Native Extant       Yes
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malaysia Native Extant       Yes
Malta Vagrant Extant       Yes
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant       Yes
Montenegro Native Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant       Yes
Myanmar Native Extant       Yes
Nepal Native Extant       Yes
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
North Korea Native Extant       Yes
Norway Native Extant       Yes
Poland Native Extant       Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant       Yes
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant       Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant       Yes
Serbia Native Extant       Yes
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Native Extant       Yes
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant       Yes
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant       Yes
Thailand Native Extant       Yes
Tunisia Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant       Yes
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
Uzbekistan Native Extant       Yes
Vietnam Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Afghanistan Salang Kotal site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hari Rud valley near Sarrakhs site factsheet
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lotfatabad and Darregaz area site factsheet
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park site factsheet
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone site factsheet
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta site factsheet
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon site factsheet
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest site factsheet
Kazakhstan Zheltoranga site factsheet
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir site factsheet
Tajikistan Sarazm site factsheet
Tajikistan Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve site factsheet
Turkmenistan Gorelde site factsheet
Turkmenistan Muskinata site factsheet
Turkmenistan Nargyz site factsheet
Turkmenistan Repetek site factsheet
Turkmenistan Saryyazy site factsheet
Turkmenistan Uzboy site factsheet
Uzbekistan Aksay Lake and surrounding desert site factsheet
Uzbekistan Buzaubay site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area site factsheet
Uzbekistan Dengizkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe site factsheet
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir site factsheet
Uzbekistan Khodzhaa-Davlet site factsheet
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake site factsheet
Uzbekistan Vardanzi site factsheet
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Desert Temperate suitable resident
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4420 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Parus major. Downloaded from on 07/05/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/05/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Paridae (Tits and chickadees)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 32,600,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species