This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Parus major (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split by Päckert et al. (2005) into P. major, P. minor and P. cinereus who also transferred P. bokharensis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) into P. major. The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group supports the authors treatment of bokharensis because morphological, vocal and genetic differences are small, but the treatment of minor and cinereus as species is not followed owing to the authors own reservations about recognising cinereus as distinct from minor because of the minor morphological, vocal and genetic differences and due to uncertainty over taxonomic relationships in the westernmost Himalayan region which allows the possibility that major and bokharensis are connected to cinereus and cinereus to minor. Owing to this uncertainty it is not felt there is sufficient evidence to treat any of these taxa as distinct from major at the species level.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.
Visser M.E., L.J.M. Holleman & P. Gienapp. 2006. Shifts in caterpillar biomass phenology due to climate change and its impact on the breeding biology of an insectivorous bird. Oecologia 147: 164â€“172.
Visser, M.E., A.J. van Noordwijk, J. M. Tinbergen & C. M. Lessells. 1998. Warmer springs lead to mis-timed reproduction in Great Tits (Parus major). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 265: 1867-1870.
Further web sources of information
Detailed regional assessment and species account from the European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International, 2015)
Text account compilers
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Parus major. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/11/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/11/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Family||Paridae (Tits and chickadees)|
|Species name author||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||32,600,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- 2015 European Red List assessment