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River Tern Sterna aurantia

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A3c 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,100,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -
Population justification: The population in India has been estimated to number more than 50,000 individuals, thus the global population is put at 50,000-100,000 individuals (Delany and Scott 2006).
Trend justification: Precipitous declines have occurred in parts of South-East Asia, whilst local increases have been noted in India, making the deciphering of past population trends difficult. The species is expected to undergo a moderately rapid reduction over the next three generations, as threats, such as dam construction and disturbance, increase in prevalence.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant      
India Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Laos Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant      
Pakistan Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) major resident
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use / Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sterna aurantia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author Gray, 1831
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species