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LC
Laughing Gull Larus atricilla

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,030,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,380,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -
Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (344% increase over 40 years, equating to a 45.2% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Vagrant Extant        
Austria Vagrant Extant        
Bahamas Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belize Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant Yes      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Bulgaria Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Chile Vagrant Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Fiji Vagrant Extant   Yes    
France Vagrant Extant        
French Guiana Native Extant        
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Greece Vagrant Extant        
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Grenada Native Extant Yes      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant        
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Jamaica Native Extant       Yes
Kiribati Vagrant Extant        
Marshall Islands Vagrant Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Namibia Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Nicaragua Native Extant        
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Panama Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Pitcairn Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Samoa Vagrant Extant        
Senegal Vagrant Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Spain Vagrant Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Martin (to France) Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant       Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Anguilla (to UK) Cauls Pond site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Prickly Pear (East and West) site factsheet
Anguilla (to UK) Scrub Island site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Christian Cove site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Codrington Lagoon and the Creek site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Fitches Creek Bay site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Hanson's Bay – Flashes site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam site factsheet
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay site factsheet
Aruba (to Netherlands) San Nicolas Bay Reef Islands site factsheet
Bahamas Booby Island site factsheet
Bahamas Cat Island Wetlands site factsheet
Bahamas Great Inagua site factsheet
Bahamas Grog Pond site factsheet
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park site factsheet
Bahamas Long Island and Hog Cay site factsheet
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays site factsheet
Bahamas Red Bays site factsheet
Bahamas Salt Cay site factsheet
Bahamas South Beach Tidal Flats site factsheet
Bahamas Southern Great Lake site factsheet
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara site factsheet
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas site factsheet
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila site factsheet
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus site factsheet
French Guiana Connétable site factsheet
French Guiana Plaine Kaw et Pointe Béhague site factsheet
Guyana Shell Beach site factsheet
Jamaica Black River Great Morass site factsheet
Jamaica Pedro Cays and Bank site factsheet
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Great Salt Pond, Sint Maarten site factsheet
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Pelikan Rock, Sint Maarten site factsheet
St Barthelemy (to France) Turtle Island site factsheet
St Kitts and Nevis Booby Island site factsheet
St Vincent and the Grenadines All Awash Island site factsheet
St Vincent and the Grenadines Battowia Island site factsheet
St Vincent and the Grenadines Petit Canouan site factsheet
Trinidad and Tobago Little Tobago Island site factsheet
Trinidad and Tobago West Coast Mudflats site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) East Caicos and adjacent areas site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Grand Turk Salinas and Shores site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Salt Cay Creek and Salinas site factsheet
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Turks Bank Seabird Cays site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to UK) Great Tobago site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays site factsheet
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus atricilla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,030,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species