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LC
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 182,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,770,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant       Yes
Algeria Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes  
Iraq Unknown Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant Yes      
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Kenya Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Latvia Vagrant Extant        
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malta Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant        
Monaco Unknown Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant     Yes Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Senegal Vagrant Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Spain Native Extant     Yes Yes
Sudan Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant     Yes Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant     Yes  
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
Western Sahara Unknown Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Delta of the Rhine site factsheet
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen site factsheet
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn site factsheet
Belgium Kuifeend and Blokkersdijk site factsheet
Belgium Schorren en Polder van de Beneden-Schelde site factsheet
Belgium Zwin site factsheet
France Basse vallée du Var site factsheet
France Camargue site factsheet
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg site factsheet
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou) site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias, and Aliakmon estuaries site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalohori lagoon site factsheet
Greece Gera gulf-Dipi and Haramida marshes, Lesvos site factsheet
Greece Lake Mitrikou (Ismarida) site factsheet
Greece Nestou delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság site factsheet
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley site factsheet
Hungary Sárvíz Valley site factsheet
Italy Cervia saltpans site factsheet
Italy Marchesato and River Neto site factsheet
Italy Tarquinia saltpans site factsheet
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon site factsheet
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano site factsheet
Italy Venice lagoon site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Veersemeer site factsheet
Netherlands Lake Volkerak site factsheet
Netherlands Markiezaat site factsheet
Netherlands Westerschelde and Saeftinghe site factsheet
Netherlands Zoommeer site factsheet
Poland Brzeszcze ponds site factsheet
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir site factsheet
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap site factsheet
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Mietkow reservoir site factsheet
Poland Nysa reservoir site factsheet
Poland Skoki Gravel-Pit site factsheet
Poland Turek Site site factsheet
Poland Upper Odra River Valley site factsheet
Portugal Cabo Raso site factsheet
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău site factsheet
Romania Black Sea site factsheet
Romania Danube Delta site factsheet
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu) site factsheet
Romania Lake Bugeac site factsheet
Romania Lake Dunăreni site factsheet
Romania Lake Oltina site factsheet
Romania Lake Techirghiol site factsheet
Romania Limanu - Herghelia site factsheet
Romania Ostrovu Lung - Gostinu site factsheet
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes site factsheet
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo site factsheet
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake site factsheet
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans site factsheet
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes site factsheet
Slovakia River Danube flood-plain site factsheet
Slovakia Slnava site factsheet
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans site factsheet
Slovenia Strunjan saltpans site factsheet
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf site factsheet
Spain Bahía de Málaga - Cerro Gordo site factsheet
Spain Ebro delta site factsheet
Spain Llobregat delta site factsheet
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes site factsheet
Turkey Bolluk Lake site factsheet
Turkey Bosphorus site factsheet
Turkey Büyükçekmece Lake site factsheet
Turkey Gediz Delta site factsheet
Turkey Kulu Lake site factsheet
Turkey Seyfe Lake site factsheet
Ukraine Kazantip Cape, Aktash lake and Astanins'ka marsh site factsheet
Ukraine Obytichna peninsula site factsheet
Ukraine Syvash Bay site factsheet
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays site factsheet
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary site factsheet
United Kingdom Bowland Fells site factsheet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours site factsheet
United Kingdom Copeland Islands site factsheet
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick site factsheet
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast site factsheet
United Kingdom Poole Harbour site factsheet
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water site factsheet
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands site factsheet
United Kingdom The Swale site factsheet
United Kingdom The Wash site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus melanocephalus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author Temminck, 1820
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 182,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species