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LC
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Taxonomic note
Junco hyemalis and J. insularis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) are lumped into J. hyemalis following AOU (1998).

Distribution and population
The subspecies insularis is endemic to Guadalupe Island, 280 km west of Baja California, Mexico, where it was once common and among the island's most abundant birds. It is now patchily distributed in the north of the island.

Trend justification
This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Although the subspecies insularis was in decline (Howell and Webb 1995a), its population has incresed in recent years (P. Salaman in litt. 2007).

Threats
As a whole, the species is not under immediate threat, but the subspecies J. h. insularis has been threatened by extremely intense grazing by goats. The largest tract of remnant cypress forest on Guadalupe Island was c.3 km long in 1971, but only c.1 km by 1988. Smaller forest patches presumably experience similar intense grazing, leading to a total lack of regeneration. Feral cats were common in 1988 and presumably prey upon this species. Numbers have increased in recent years owing to habitat management and the culling of goats.

Conservation Actions Underway
In the context of J. h. insularis, Guadalupe is designated as a biosphere reserve (S. N. G. Howell in litt. 1998), but historically there has been little active management (Mirsky 1976. 5. Stattersfield et al. 1998). Nearly 35,000 goats were removed in 1970 and 1971, but in the late 1990s numbers were still estimated at 10,000 individuals (Stattersfield et al. 1998). There is apparently governmental interest in eradicating introduced predators and herbivores (B. Tershy and B. Keitt in litt. 1999), and non-governmental organisations in the region are developing the capacity to undertake eradication programmes on such large islands (B. Tershy and B. Keitt in litt. 1999). There is potential for the removal of these introduced species by 2010 (B. Tershy and B. Keitt in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following measures have been proposed for the conservation of J. h. insularis: Eradicate goats and cats from the island (B. Tershy and B. Keitt in litt. 1999). Survey to provide a more recent assessment of the population size and remaining habitat.

References
Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

MacMynowski, D. P.; Root, T. L. 2007. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions. International Journal of Biometeorology 51: 361-373.

Martin, T. E. 2007. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system. Ecology 88: 367-380.

Mirsky, E. N. 1976. Song divergence in hummingbird and junco populations on Guadalupe Island. Condor 78: 230-235.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Gilroy, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Junco hyemalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 260000000 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9,760,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species