This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Junco hyemalis and J. insularis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) are lumped into J. hyemalis following AOU (1998).
Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
MacMynowski, D. P.; Root, T. L. 2007. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions. International Journal of Biometeorology 51: 361-373.
Martin, T. E. 2007. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system. Ecology 88: 367-380.
Mirsky, E. N. 1976. Song divergence in hummingbird and junco populations on Guadalupe Island. Condor 78: 230-235.
Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Gilroy, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Junco hyemalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/09/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/09/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Least Concern|
|Family||Emberizidae (Buntings, American sparrows and allies)|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Population size||260000000 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||9,760,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|