email a friend
printable version
VU
Saunders's Gull Larus saundersi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A3cde+4cde 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2010 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 68,200 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 327,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 14400 medium Estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -
Population justification: A population estimate of 14,400 mature individuals has been derived from analysis of records and surveys by BirdLife International (2011). This is roughly equivalent to 21,000-22,000 individuals in total.
Trend justification: The species's population is presumed to be declining in line with the rate of habitat loss owing to land reclamation, which is anticipated to increase in the near future. Studies at specific sites have shown declines, for example a drop from over 900 individuals to 575 in the last 15 years at Yancheng National Nature Reserve (Jiang et al. 2010).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Native Extant   Yes  
Macao (China) Native Extant   Yes  
North Korea Native Extant   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant Yes    
Taiwan (China) Native Extant   Yes  
Vietnam Native Extant   Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
China (mainland) Beidaihe site factsheet
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Coastal wetlands of northern Chongming Dao island site factsheet
China (mainland) Dongzhaigang site factsheet
China (mainland) Eastern tidal flat of Nanhui site factsheet
China (mainland) Futian site factsheet
China (mainland) Gongping Dahu Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Luan He Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Nanliujiang Hekou site factsheet
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands site factsheet
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong site factsheet
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Xuanmen Wan site factsheet
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve site factsheet
China (mainland) Yong Jiang Estuary site factsheet
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan site factsheet
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area site factsheet
Japan Hakata bay site factsheet
Japan Hikawa estuary, Shiranui site factsheet
Japan Inner Ariake bay site factsheet
Japan Kamogawa estuary site factsheet
Japan Kumakawa estuary site factsheet
Japan Nakatsu and Usa tidal flats site factsheet
Japan Sone tidal flat site factsheet
North Korea Taedong River estuary site factsheet
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake) site factsheet
South Korea Cheonsu Bay site factsheet
South Korea Dongjin estuary site factsheet
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary site factsheet
South Korea Mangyeong estuary site factsheet
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary site factsheet
South Korea Namyang Bay site factsheet
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake site factsheet
South Korea Suncheon Bay site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island site factsheet
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Aogu Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Beimen site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Budai Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Chu'an site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Hanbao Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Hsinchu City Coastal Area site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Kaomei Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Kinmen National Park site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Lanyang River Estuary site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Pohtzi River Estuary site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Tacheng Wetlands site factsheet
Taiwan (China) Tatu Rivermouth Wildlife Refuge site factsheet
Vietnam An Hai site factsheet
Vietnam Nghia Hung site factsheet
Vietnam Thai Thuy site factsheet
Vietnam Tien Lang site factsheet
Vietnam Tra Co site factsheet
Vietnam Xuan Thuy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water / Sewage Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents / Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Eggs Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus saundersi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author (Swinhoe, 1871)
Population size 14400 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 68,200 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species