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LC
Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,820,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,820,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Bahamas Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Belize Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Colombia Native Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
France Vagrant Extant      
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Vagrant Extant      
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Panama Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Vagrant Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Spain Vagrant Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
USA Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Active Pass site factsheet
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago site factsheet
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes site factsheet
Canada Niagara River Corridor site factsheet
Canada Point Pelee site factsheet
Canada Prince Edward Point site factsheet
Canada Quoddy Region site factsheet
USA Niagara River Corridor site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus philadelphia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author (Ord, 1815)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,820,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species