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LC
Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,820,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 3,820,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.5 - - -
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant increase over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Bahamas Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Belize Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant     Yes Yes
Colombia Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant        
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
France Vagrant Extant        
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Vagrant Extant        
Japan Vagrant Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Panama Vagrant Extant        
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Spain Vagrant Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant   Yes Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Canada Active Pass site factsheet
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago site factsheet
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes site factsheet
Canada Niagara River Corridor site factsheet
Canada Point Pelee site factsheet
Canada Prince Edward Point site factsheet
Canada Quoddy Region site factsheet
USA Niagara River Corridor site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus philadelphia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls, Terns, Skimmers)
Species name author (Ord, 1815)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,820,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species