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Surveys indicate that this species may have undergone a very rapid decline over three generations (32 years). It is therefore listed as Endangered.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Turbott, E. G. 1990. Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.
37 cm. Pale grey-and-white gull. Adult, pale, silvery-grey back and wings. Thinly black-bordered wing-tips. White underparts. Long, thin, black bill. Black to reddish-black legs and feet. White eye. Juvenile, more extensive black on wing-tips. Pale, flesh bill with dark tip. Pinkish to reddish-black legs. Brown eye. Similar spp. Red-billed Gull L. novaehollandiae has shorter, deeper bill - red in adults, darker grey wings, more extensive black on wing-tips.
Higgins, P. J.; Davies, S. J. J. F. 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds vol 3: snipe to pigeons. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Heather, B. D.; Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Powlesland, R. 1998. Gull and tern survey. Ornithological Society of New Zealand News 88: 3-9.
Maloney, R. F. 1999. Bird populations in nine braided rivers of the Upper Waitaki Basin, South Island, New Zealand: changes after 30 years. Notornis 46: 243-256.
Taylor, G. A. 2000. Action plan for seabird conservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Biswell, S. 2006. Ferals filmed killing endangered chicks. Forest and Bird 319.
Further web sources of information
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Taylor, J.
Hitchmough, R., McClellan, R., Taylor, G.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Larus bulleri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Endangered|
|Family||Laridae (Gulls and terns)|
|Species name author||Hutton, 1871|
|Population size||mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||8,700 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|