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Santa Cruz Shrikebill Clytorhynchus sanctaecrucis
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Justification
This species is classified as Endangered because it has a very small population which is declining through small-scale forest loss for subsistence farming. However the population estimate is based on few data and a poor knowledge of the area of suitable habitat on Nendo.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dutson, G. 2006. The Pacific shrikebills (Clytorhynchus) and the case for species status for the form sanctaecrucis. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126(4): 299-308.

Taxonomic note
Clytorhynchus nigrogularis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into C. nigrogularis and C. sanctaecrucis following Dutson (2006).

Identification
Identification 21cm. Males are almost pied with blue-glossed black upperparts, black head and throat, white ear-coverts, small white supercilium and white breast and underparts. Females are all rufous brown. Bill is slate blue-grey in both sexes. Similar spp. Black-throated Shrikebill Clytorhynchus nigrogularis. Plumage and behaviour distinctly different, also larger. Voice Loud mournful whistles c. 1-2 seconds long and repeated regularly.

Distribution and population
Clytorhynchus sanctaecrucis is endemic to Nendo in the Santa Cruz Islands of the Solomon Islands (Pratt et al. (1987). It is known from two specimens taken in 1927 and two pairs seen in 2004 (Dutson 2006), other short surveys have failed to find the species, though these did not reach hill forest in interior Nendo (Mayr 1933a, Gibbs 1996, G. Dutson pers. obs. 1997, T. Leary in litt. 2000). In 1927, the Whitney expedition recorded just these two birds in seven days on Nendo. In 2004, two pairs were seen on a 10 km transect through suitable forest above Luselo (Dutson 2006). Local reports suggest that it is an uncommon species of old-growth forest and none have been seen on other visits by several observers to degraded forest close to the town of Lata (Dutson 2006).

Population justification
The species is only currently known at one site, although suspected to occur at over 10. The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. The estimate equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.

Trend justification
It is suspected to be in declining at a slow to moderate rate owing to ongoing habitat loss and degradation caused mainly by shifting agriculture.

Ecology
It is known from rainforest near the summit of the island (550 m) and at about 80 m (Dutson 2006). It has not been recorded in degraded forest and local reports suggest that it is only found deep in forest, perhaps usually beside streams (Dutson 2006). Pairs have been seen foraging at all levels, including on the ground, but otherwise behave as other shrikebills (Dutson 2006).

Threats
The lack of records from the degraded forest close to Lata suggest that it could be threatened by logging. Nendo's forests are currently suffering only a little degradation from slowly expanding agriculture and harvesting timber for local use. The susceptibility of birds on these islands to invasive alien species such as black rats Rattus rattus is unknown.

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to establish distribution and densities in various forest habitats and altitudes. Develop a monitoring programme. Protect sites which are found to be important for the species as part of a forest conservation plan for the Santa Cruz Islands.

References
Dutson, G. 2006. The Pacific shrikebills (Clytorhynchus) and the case for species status for the form sanctaecrucis. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126(4): 299-308.

Gibbs, D. 1996. Notes on Solomon Island birds. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 116: 18-25.

Mayr, E. 1933. Birds collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition. XXIV. Notes on Polynesian flycatchers and a revision of the genus Clytorhynchus Elliot. American Museum Novitates 628: 1-21.

Pratt, H. D.; Bruner, P. L.; Berrett, D. G. 1987. A field guide to the birds of Hawaii and the tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Derhé, M., Mahood, S.

Contributors
Dutson, G., Leary, T.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Clytorhynchus sanctaecrucis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Monarchidae (Monarchs)
Species name author Mayr, 1933
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species