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LC
Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taxonomic note
Larus novaehollandiae and L. hartlaubi, cross-regional species, and L. scopulinus, a New Zealand endemic (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993), are retained as separate species contra Turbott (1990) who include scopulinus and hartlaubi as subspecies of L. novaehollandiae, pending revision of the New Zealand CheckList.

Synonym(s)
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae Christidis and Boles (2008), Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae novaehollandiae Christidis and Boles (2008)

Distribution and population
The Silver Gull breeds on much of the coast of Australia except the central-north, on Tasmania, New Caledonia (to France). During winter its range expands to encompass the central-northern coast of Australia, and inland Tasmania, central, south-west and south-east Australia (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

Trend justification
The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).

Ecology
This species can be found at both coastal and inland locations in a variety of habitats including artificial habitats such as rubbish dumps. It has a very varied, opportunistic diet including fish, marine and terrestrial invertebrates, seeds, insects and bird eggs. Kleptoparasitism has been observed. It breeds on small islands and points, mainly offshore, but also on freshwater and brackish lakes, and on causeways in salt-pans. The breeding season covers all months, with the exact timing varying depending on locality and age. It is colonial and occasionally solitary, with smaller colonies in the tropics (3-25 pairs) up to 3000 pairs in southern Australia. Colony size depends on food availability. Individuals may wander widely outside the breeding season (del Hoyo et al. 1996).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Larus novaehollandiae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

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To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Silver gull (Larus novaehollandiae) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Laridae (Gulls and terns)
Species name author Stephens, 1826
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,360,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species